Abstract:
Purpose: The paper aims at presenting different methods of motivating students to learn during technical mechanics classes.Design/methodology/approach: It was assumed that adding variety to the grading system would enhance students’ interest in technical mechanics classes. Exercises on the board were supplemented with simple experiments, in the preparation of which participated students themselves. The method of preparing the experiments and the way their presentation were evaluated by an academic teacher. Such evaluation was complementary to the traditional method of checking students’ knowledge in the form of written tests.Findings: After the classes finished, an anonymous survey was carried out among the students. The students appreciated a varied grading system as well as the additional experiments. Also, an attempt was made to evaluate the influence of modifications in conducting the classes on the marks the students received.Research limitations/implications: Motivating is a complex system of influence, composed of a number of factors. The teacher is able to directly influence only some of them. This paper presents only those system factors which depend on the teacher. Nevertheless, they are examined within the entire complex of other determinants influencing the learning process.Practical implications: The grading system described in the paper led to enhancing students’ interest in the subject in which it was applied.Originality/value: A transparent and expanded system of evaluating students increases their involvement during classes. Since every person has different skills, predisposition and previously acquired knowledge, such system allows getting through to more students while trying to improve their learning results.

The medical education system has evolved
over time and undergone a radical transformation in the past few decades. With
advancements in disease treatments, emergence of new specialties and highly
competitive practicing environment, the focus has shifted from gaining
knowledge to acquiring degrees. This paper presents 1) where we have been, 2) problems that we have faced, 3) our present status and 4) where we need to be in the future.

Abstract:
Earth science educators struggle to gain an equal footing in the K-12
curriculum with the life and physical sciences. The low number of students taking
Earth sciences courses is at odds with theNational
Science and Education Standards (National Research Council, 1996, 2012) that gives equal emphasis to Earth and space
science (ESS). The purpose of this investigation was to analyze students’ and
teachers’ perceptions of Earth science and its perceived educational values in
secondary schools. The sample for this study consisted of 39 science teachers
in public secondary schools, and 46 students taking science in those schools.
The instruments for the study included a 14-item Earth Science Teacher Survey
(ESTS) and a 14-item Earth Science Student Survey (ESSS) (surveys modified from King, 2001). The results of this study showed that
teachers do not think that ESS is as important to the secondary school
curriculum as physics, chemistry, and biology. Not unexpectedly, Earth science
teachers had more positive perceptions of Earth science and its educational
value than non-Earth science teachers. Students in this study had more positive
perceptions of Earth science and its educational value than teachers. These
students also reported a high level of enjoyment learning about Earth science
and a high interest in learning about ESS topics.

Abstract:
Students bring a diverse array of ideas about natural events to their science classes, and many of these ideas are often at variance with the scientifically accepted views. Numerous studies have identified multiple biological evolution-related misconceptions held by select groups of students. Collectively, these studies repeatedly indicate that students with varying educational backgrounds have difficulties accurately understanding the concepts of evolution. Because scientific literacy in the field of biology necessitates a basic understanding of evolution concepts and theory, students’ possession of biological evolution-related misconceptions is problematic. The focus of this study was to identify the types and prevalence of such misconceptions within a state’s public high schools’ prebiology students and to correlate those findings with demographic variables. Some 993 students enrolled in their initial high school biology course during the 2010-2011 academic years in one of 42 Oklahoma public high schools served as this study’s unit of analysis. The Biological Evolution Literacy Survey which presents 23 biological misconception statements grouped into five categories, served as the research tool for identifying students’ misconceptions, calculating conception index scores, and collecting demographic data. Multiple statistical analyses were performed to identify statistically significant (p < 0.05) relationships between variables related to students’ number and types of misconceptions. Analysis revealed that participants possess a mean 43.9% rate of understanding of those biological evolution concepts presented in the BEL Survey combined with a 39.1% mean misconception rate. A statistically significant difference in participants’ BEL Survey mean index scores when related to biological evolution knowledge self-rating was also disclosed. Strategies for identifying and eliminating students’ misconceptions are offered. Misconceptions of biological evolution were prevalent within this student population and the findings corroborate the literature that reports a strikingly high prevalence of biological evolution-related misconceptions in students at all levels, from elementary pupils to university science majors.

Abstract:
Are drawing-based instruments such as the Draw-A-Scientist-Test (DAST) and its derivatives effective probes for assessing the images of scientists held by girls and children of diverse ethnicities in developed countries, children in Asia, and children in the developing world? This paper is a review of the literature from 2002 to the present designed to answer that question. It also addresses a second research question of what insights these images reveal that can inform development of inclusive science curricula. Scientist image data obtained from drawing-based images reveal that drawings are heavily influenced by culture, gender and socio-economic status. These findings suggest an opportunity to engage girls and ethnic minority children in Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics (STEM) learning by integrating gender and ethnic content into STEM curriculum following the model developed by Joseph Banks (1989) for social studies and history curriculum.

Abstract:
The aim of the research was to present motor development with the help of centile charts, where the centile curves determine particular parts of the population: 3, 10, 25, 50, 75, 90 and 97 percentile. The research was conducted in the spring of 2001. A survey of 11 803 girls aged between 7.5 and 19.5 years old, from various types of rural and urban schools of the Kujawsko-Pomorskie district, was conducted. Centile charts make it possible to observe the process of the development of the examined characteristic, to answer the question as to whether an individual is at the level which is characteristic of a certain age, and, in case of aberrations, to come to a conclusion that the process of growth is disturbed. While determining the centile position one can become familiar with the level of development of an individual against calendar individuals of the same age. The value of C50 determines the calendar age of an individual. The results of the empiric research shows that the curve of the individual development of a child "wanders" within some channels, which is quite normal and does not mean a distortion of development. Cílem vyzkum bylo p edstavit motoricky vyvoj pomocí centilovych stupnic, kdy centilové k ivky ur ují jisté ásti populace: 3, 10, 25, 50, 75, 90 a 97 percentil. Vyzkumy byly prováděny na ja e roku 2001. Tykaly se 11 803 dívek ve věku mezi 7,5 a 19,5 lety z r znych typ venkovskych a městskych kol kujavsko-pomo ského kraje. Centilové stupnice umo ňují sledovat proces vyvoje zkoumanych charakteristik, zodpovědět na otázku, zda se jednotlivec nachází na úrovni charakteristické pro ur ity věk a – v p ípadě odchylek – dospět k závěru, e proces r stu je naru eny. P i stanovování centilové pozice je mo no poznat úroveň vyvoje jednotlivce ve srovnání s jednotlivci tého kalendá ního věku. Kalendá ní věk jednotlivce ur uje hodnota C50. Vysledky empirickych vyzkum ukazují, e k ivka individuálního vyvoje dítěte se klikatí v mezích ur itych kanál ; to je v ak normální a neznamená to deformaci vyvoje.

Abstract:
Leki przeciwp ytkowe s powszechnie stosowane w prewencji powik ań zakrzepowych u pacjentów z chorobami sercowo-naczyniowymi. Ostatnie lata przynios y wzrost zainteresowania w literaturze medycznej zjawiskiem aspirynooporno i". Terminem tym okre la si sytuacj , gdy przyjmowanie kwasu acetylosalicylowego w zalecanych dawkach nie przyczynia si do zmniejszenia ryzyka wyst pienia epizodu niedokrwienia spowodowanego powstaniem zakrzepu w wietle naczynia u pacjentów z chorob naczyniow . Mniej znanym, ale lepiej scharakteryzowanym, jest zjawisko oporno ci na klopidogrel. W ostatnich latach nast pi olbrzymi post p metod laboratoryjnych s u cych do oceny funkcji p ytek. Oporno na kwas acetylosalicylowy (ASA) definiuje si jako brak zahamowania pod wp ywem ASA p ytkowej produkcji tromboksanu A2 oraz zwi zanego z tym zahamowania procesu aktywacji i agregacji p ytek krwi. Oporno na ASA mo na wykry w testach opartych na ocenie produkcji tromboksanu A2 oraz funkcji p ytek zale nej od jego dzia ania. Oporno na kwas acetylosalicylowy mo na zmniejszy poprzez leczenie przyczyn oraz zmniejszenie produkcji tromboksanu poprzez zahamowanie innych szlaków aktywacji p ytek krwi. Potrzebne s kolejne badania pozwalaj ce lepiej zdefiniowa zjawisko aspirynooporno i, oceni skuteczno stosowanych metod do jego analizy i wp ywu zmniejszonej wra liwo ci na ASA na zdarzenia sercowo-naczyniowe.

Abstract:
Paczynski realized that a properly chosen gravitational potential may accurately model (in a "pseudo Newtonian" theory) general relativistic effects that determine motion of matter near a non-rotating black hole. Paczynski's choice, known today as the "Paczynski-Wiita potential", proved to be very practical. It was used by numerous researchers in the black hole accretion theory, and became a standard tool in relativistic astrophysics. The model is an example of Paczynski's admired ability to invent "out of nowhere" simple ideas that were brilliant, deep and useful. Paczynski has guessed intuitively the form of the potential. However, it could be also derived by a a step-by-step formal procedure. I show the derivation here. My derivation is based on a standard definition of the relativistic "effective potential" in the Schwarzschild spacetime. The relativistic effective potential may be uniquely divided into its "gravitational" and "centrifugal" part. The gravitational part differs from the Paczynski-Wiita potential only by a constant.

Abstract:
The methods of macroscopic averaging used to derive the macroscopic Maxwell equations from electron theory are methodologically incorrect and lead in some cases to a substantial error. For instance, these methods do not take into account the existence of a macroscopic electromagnetic field EB, HB generated by carriers of electric charge moving in a thin layer adjacent to the boundary of the physical region containing these carriers. If this boundary is impenetrable for charged particles, then in its immediate vicinity all carriers are accelerated towards the inside of the region. The existence of the privileged direction of acceleration results in the generation of the macroscopic field EB, HB. The contributions to this field from individual accelerated particles are described with a sufficient accuracy by the Lienard-Wiechert formulas. In some cases the intensity of the field EB, HB is significant not only for deuteron plasma prepared for a controlled thermonuclear fusion reaction but also for electron plasma in conductors at room temperatures. The corrected procedures of macroscopic averaging will induce some changes in the present form of plasma dynamics equations. The modified equations will help to design improved systems of plasma confinement.

Abstract:
Three radii are associated with a circle: the "geodesic radius" R_1 which is the distance from circle's center to its perimeter, the "circumferential radius" R_2 which is the length of the perimeter divided by 2 pi and the "curvature radius" R_3 which is circle's curvature radius in the Frenet sense. In the flat Euclidean geometry it is R_1 = R_2 = R_3, but in a curved space these three radii are different. I show that although Newton's dynamics uses Euclidean geometry, its equations that describe circular motion in spherical gravity always unambiguously refer to one particular radius of the three --- geodesic, circumferential, or curvature. For example, the gravitational force is given by F = -GMm/(R_2)^2, and the centrifugal force by mv^2/R_3. Building on this, I derive a Newtonian formula for the perihelion of Mercury advance.