Abstract:
The present status of calculations of four fermion final states is reviewed. Higher order problems arising there are pointed out. Special attention is paid to results obtained in the semi-analytical approach and their limitations and perspectives.

Abstract:
Model independent constraints on extra neutral gauge bosons are obtained from partial decay widths of the Z_1 and forward-backward and left-right asymmetries at the Z_1 peak. Constraints on the ZZ' mixing angle in E_6 models are considered as special cases.

Abstract:
Simple estimates for Z' exclusion limits and Z' model measurements in pp (p bar p) collisions are derived. Due to properties of the structure functions, the Z' exclusion limits depend only logarithmically on the Z' couplings to fermions and on the integrated luminosity. The predicted scaling of Z' exclusion limits and errors of Z' measurements with the c.m. energy and luminosity allows an easy extrapolation of existing analyses to other colliders.

Abstract:
This lecture contains a pedagogical approach to the description of Z' physics in the formalism of form factors. Usually, only electroweak corrections are described by form factors, which modify the Weinberg angle and the overall normalization. It is demonstrated how this formalism can be extended to include different Born contributions. In the second part of the lecture, QCD and QED corrections are considered. The development and consequences of the radiative tail for a Z' search are discussed in detail.

Abstract:
The phenomenological constraints on extra neutral gauge bosons at present and at future colliders are reviewed. Special attention is paid to the influence of radiative corrections, systematic errors, and kinematic cuts on the Z' constraints. Simple estimates of the Z' constraints from different reactions are derived. They make the physical origin of these constraints transparent. The results existing in the literature are summarized and compared with the estimates. The consequence of model assumptions on the Z' constraints is discussed. The paper starts with an overview of Z' parameters and the possible links between them by model assumptions. It continues with a discussion of Z' limits and Z' measurements in different reactions at e+e- and mu+mu- colliders. It follows an overview of the corresponding limits at proton colliders. Possible Z' constraints from other reactions as ep collisions, atomic parity violation, neutrino scattering and cosmology are briefly mentioned.

Abstract:
Werner Heisenberg's work is the foundation for many topics of present research. This is also true for the search for extra gauge bosons. The prospects of future colliders in this search are shortly mentioned.

Abstract:
Constraints on extra neutral gauge bosons are obtained from $e^+e^-\rightarrow f\bar f$ at NLC energies. Model independent limits on the $Z'f\bar f$ couplings and lower limits on the $Z'$ mass are discussed. Typical GUTs with $M_{Z'}$ up to (3 -- 6) $\sqrt{s}$ can be excluded. A distinction between different GUT scenarios is possible if $M_{Z'}\le 3\sqrt{s}$. Radiative corrections give only small changes to the $Z'$ exclusion limits provided that appropriate cuts are applied. %The inclusion of systematic errors leads to slightly worse results for %$M_{Z'}^{lim}$.

Abstract:
We describe some characteristic properties of $B_c$ mesons and discuss the production and the prospects of detection in $e^+ e^-$, $\gamma \gamma$, and $\bar pp/pp$ collisions. The production mechanisms considered here also play an important role in charmonium and bottomonium production.

Abstract:
Expectations for constraints on extra Z bosons are derived for LEP 2 and future linear e+e- colliders. For typical GUTs, a Z' with M_{Z'} \le 3 to 6 \sqrt{s} may cause observable effects. The Z' discovery limits are dominated by statistical errors. However, if a Z' signal is observed, the discrimination between different models becomes much worse if systematic errors are taken into account. Discrimination between models is possible for M_{Z'} < 3 \sqrt{s}. A determination of Z' f \bar f couplings independently of models becomes attractive with future colliders. Anticipated bounds are determined.

Abstract:
The process e+e- ---> q(bar) q g g where all final particles are hard is treated in a semi-analytic approach. Cuts on the invariant masses of the quark and the gluon pair can be applied. The total cross section is obtained by three numerical integrations.