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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 593218 matches for " A. L. Renshaw "
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Does the radiofrequency impedance-controlled endometrial ablation have any morphologic effects on uterine leiomyomata?: Report of 3 cases
Oluwole Fadare, Sa A Wang, Idris L Renshaw
Diagnostic Pathology , 2008, DOI: 10.1186/1746-1596-3-28
Abstract: Endometrial ablation entails the destruction of the endometrial lining by one of several energy forms that is delivered through a hysteroscope-like or similar instrument. Some of the available endometrial ablation technologies include The NovaSure? system [Hologic (Cytyc) Corporation, Marlborough, MA, USA, which ablates the endometrial surface via radiofrequency energy], the ThermaChoice UBT (Gynecare Inc, Somerville, NJ, USA) and Cavaterm (Wallsten Medical, Morges, Switzerland) systems (which deliver thermal energy from heated fluid in a balloon), the HerOption system [American Medical Systems Inc, Minnetonka, MN, USA, which is based on freezing the endometrium surface], the HTA system [BEI Medical/Boston Scientific, Natick, MA, USA, which is based on the use of heated saline], and the Microsulis system [Microsulis Medical Ltd, Pampano Beach, FL, USA, which is based on microwave energy].As noted previously, NovaSure? is one of several second-generation endometrial ablation systems and has been used with increasing frequency over the past decade. The NovaSure? system received approval from the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in 2001 for the permanent ablation of the endometrial lining of women with menorrhagia that can be attributed to non-neoplastic causes [1,2]. The endometrial ablative power is derived from radiofrequency energy. Briefly, a conformable bipolar electrode array that is mounted on an expandable frame is transcervically inserted into the endometrial cavity. The array expands to form a confluent lesion on the entire internal surface of the endometrium. Radiofrequency energy is then transmitted for a period of approximately 90 seconds, and the endometrium and the superficial myometrium are thereby ablated. Increasing tissue depth of ablation causes an automatic cessation of power-delivery at a threshold of 50 ohms or at 120 seconds, and the maximum power requirements are predetermined [1,2] Recently, we encountered a distinctive uterus
Clonal Expansion during Staphylococcus aureus Infection Dynamics Reveals the Effect of Antibiotic Intervention
Gareth McVicker,Tomasz K. Prajsnar,Alexander Williams,Nelly L. Wagner,Michael Boots,Stephen A. Renshaw,Simon J. Foster
PLOS Pathogens , 2014, DOI: doi/10.1371/journal.ppat.1003959
Abstract: To slow the inexorable rise of antibiotic resistance we must understand how drugs impact on pathogenesis and influence the selection of resistant clones. Staphylococcus aureus is an important human pathogen with populations of antibiotic-resistant bacteria in hospitals and the community. Host phagocytes play a crucial role in controlling S. aureus infection, which can lead to a population “bottleneck” whereby clonal expansion of a small fraction of the initial inoculum founds a systemic infection. Such population dynamics may have important consequences on the effect of antibiotic intervention. Low doses of antibiotics have been shown to affect in vitro growth and the generation of resistant mutants over the long term, however whether this has any in vivo relevance is unknown. In this work, the population dynamics of S. aureus pathogenesis were studied in vivo using antibiotic-resistant strains constructed in an isogenic background, coupled with systemic models of infection in both the mouse and zebrafish embryo. Murine experiments revealed unexpected and complex bacterial population kinetics arising from clonal expansion during infection in particular organs. We subsequently elucidated the effect of antibiotic intervention within the host using mixed inocula of resistant and sensitive bacteria. Sub-curative tetracycline doses support the preferential expansion of resistant microorganisms, importantly unrelated to effects on growth rate or de novo resistance acquisition. This novel phenomenon is generic, occurring with methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) in the presence of β-lactams and with the unrelated human pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The selection of resistant clones at low antibiotic levels can result in a rapid increase in their prevalence under conditions that would previously not be thought to favor them. Our results have key implications for the design of effective treatment regimes to limit the spread of antimicrobial resistance, where inappropriate usage leading to resistance may reduce the efficacy of life-saving drugs.
Interpersonal Angular Relations between Players Constrain Decision-Making on the Passing Velocity in Futsal  [PDF]
Umberto Cesar Corrêa, Luis Vilar, Keith Davids, Ian Renshaw
Advances in Physical Education (APE) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ape.2014.42013
Abstract:

The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of interpersonal interactions between players on the regulation of ball passing velocity in the team sport of futsal. For this purpose 28 sequences of play, in which passes were performed between outfield players, were selected from an elite futsal competition and analyzed using TACTO software. Relative angles between attackers and defenders were used to examine interpersonal coordination tendencies that emerged during performance. Results showed that ball passing velocity was constrained by the rate of change of the angle created by the following vectors: “ball carrier-ball receiver” and “ball carrier-ball receiver’s nearest defender”. Passing velocity remained the same when that angular value remained within a critical threshold range between ?18.16°/s to 11.26°/s. Beyond those critical threshold values, angular relations between participants seemed to enter into a new critical state requiring the emergence of a new passing velocity for performance success. The findings of this study allowed us to conclude that passing velocity during competitive performance in futsal was regulated by the rate of change of an angle established by the interaction between the ball carrier to ball receiver vector with the ball carrier to ball receiver’s nearest defender vector.

Zebrafish models of the immune response: taking it on the ChIn
Stephen A Renshaw, Philip W Ingham
BMC Biology , 2010, DOI: 10.1186/1741-7007-8-148
Abstract: The rise of multicellular animals, to what we might consider the pinnacle of human culture, relies on their ability to defend themselves against unicellular organisms competing for the same environmental resources. To aid in the constant battle waged with would-be pathogens, powerful and complex immune structures have developed, built on a series of molecular and cellular advances made by evolution hundreds of millions of years ago. Over the past century, an increasing understanding of the immune system, together with advances in public health and antimicrobial chemotherapy, have had a huge impact in preventing infectious disease and extending human lifespan. In recent decades, however, the emergence of multi-drug-resistant bacteria and the inexorable rise in inflammatory diseases threaten to undermine these improvements in health: the need for a detailed understanding of the immune system has never been more pressing. In BMC Biology, d'Alen?on and colleagues [1] report a novel method for high-throughput in vivo analysis of immune-cell function that offers new and exciting prospects for our understanding of the immune system, as well as for the discovery of new drugs with which to manipulate it.Our understanding of innate immunity began with the observations of Elie Metchnikoff, who in 1882 pricked a starfish larva with a thorn from his garden. The insult provided an immune stimulus comprising both infection and tissue injury, prompting the recruitment of cells that attempted to ingest the thorn. The transparency of the starfish larva allowed Metchnikoff to observe the remarkable behavior of these cells, which we now know as phagocytes, thus founding the science of cellular immunology.A hundred and fifty years later, the model organism has changed, but the principles remain the same. In a recent paper in Cell, Tobin and colleagues [2] followed Metchnikoff's lead and injected transparent zebrafish larvae with the bacterium Mycobacterium marinum to identify mutants wi
The Conducting Channel at the LaAlO$_3$/SrTiO$_3$ Interface
Z. Huang,X. Renshaw Wang,Z. Q. Liu,W. M. Lü,S. W. Zeng,A. Annadi,W. L. Tan,X. P. Qiu,Y. L. Zhao,M. Salluzzo,J. M. D. Coey,T. Venkatesan,Ariando
Physics , 2013, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevB.88.161107
Abstract: Localization of electrons in the two-dimensional electron gas at the LaAlO$_3$/SrTiO$_3$ interface is investigated by varying the channel thickness in order to establish the nature of the conducting channel. Layers of SrTiO$_3$ were grown on NdGaO$_3$ (110) substrates and capped with LaAlO$_3$. When the SrTiO$_3$ thickness is $\leq 6$ unit cells, most electrons at the interface are localized, but when the number of SrTiO$_3$ layers is 8-16, the free carrier density approaches $3.3 \times 10^{14}$ cm$^{-2}$, the value corresponding to charge transfer of 0.5 electron per unit cell at the interface. The number of delocalized electrons decreases again when the SrTiO$_3$ thickness is $\geq 20$ unit cells. The $\sim{4}$ nm conducting channel is therefore located significantly below the interface. The results are explained in terms of Anderson localization and the position of the mobility edge with respect to the Fermi level.
Reduced T2* Values in Soleus Muscle of Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus
Chun S. Zuo, Young-Hoon Sung, Donald C. Simonson, Erin Habecker, Jian Wang, Charlotte Haws, Rosemond A. Villafuerte, Michael E. Henry, Robert L. Dobbins, Rebecca J. Hodge, Derek J. R. Nunez, Perry F. Renshaw
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0049337
Abstract: Tissue water transverse relaxation times (T2) are highly sensitive to fluid and lipid accumulations in skeletal muscles whereas the related T2* is sensitive to changes in tissue oxygenation in addition to factors affecting T2. Diabetes mellitus (DM) affects muscles of lower extremities progressively by impairing blood flow at the macrovascular and microvascular levels. This study is to investigate whether T2 and T2* are sensitive enough to detect abnormalities in skeletal muscles of diabetic patients in the resting state. T2 and T2* values in calf muscle of 18 patients with type 2 DM (T2DM), 22 young healthy controls (YHC), and 7 age-matched older healthy controls (OHC) were measured at 3T using multi-TE spin echo and gradient echo sequences. Regional lipid levels of the soleus muscle were also measured using the Dixon method in a subset of the subjects. Correlations between T2, T2*, lipid levels, glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) and presence of diabetes were evaluated. We found that T2 values were significantly higher in calf muscles of T2DM subjects, as were T2* values in anterior tibialis, and gastrocnemius muscles of T2DM participants. However, soleus T2* values of the T2DM subjects were significantly lower than those of the older, age-matched HC cohort (22.9±0.5 vs 26.7±0.4 ms, p<0.01). The soleus T2* values in the T2DM cohort were inversely correlated with the presence of diabetes (t = ?3.46, p<0.001) and with an increase in HbA1c, but not with body mass index or regional lipid levels. Although multiple factors may contribute to changes in T2* values, the lowered T2* value observed in the T2DM soleus muscle is most consistent with a combination of high oxygen consumption and poor regional perfusion. This finding is consistent with results of previous perfusion studies and suggests that the soleus in individuals with T2DM is likely under tissue oxygenation stress.
Solar neutrino detection in a large volume double-phase liquid argon experiment
D. Franco,C. Giganti,P. Agnes,L. Agostino,B. Bottino,S. Davini,S. De Cecco,A. Fan,G. Fiorillo,C. Galbiati,A. M. Goretti,E. V. Hungerford,Al. Ianni,An. Ianni,C. Jollet,L. Marini,C. J. Martoff,A. Meregaglia,L. Pagani,M. Pallavicini,E. Pantic,A. Pocar,A. L. Renshaw,B. Rossi,N. Rossi,Y. Suvorov,G. Testera,A. Tonazzo,H. Wang,S. Zavatarelli
Physics , 2015,
Abstract: The direct search for dark matter WIMP particles through their interaction with nuclei at the "neutrino floor" sensitivity, where neutrino-induced coherent scattering on nuclei starts contributing to the background, requires detectors capable of collecting exposures of the order of 1~ktonne yr free of background resulting from beta and gamma decays and cosmogenic and radiogenic neutrons. The same constraints are required for precision measurements of solar neutrinos elastically scattering on electrons. Two-phase liquid argon time projection chambers (LAr TPCs) are prime candidates for the ambitious program to explore the nature of dark matter. The large target, high scintillation light yield and good spatial resolution in all three cartesian directions concurrently allows a high precision measurement of solar neutrino fluxes. We studied the cosmogenic and radiogenic backgrounds affecting solar neutrino detection in a 300 tonne (100 tonne fiducial) LAr TPC operating at LNGS depth (3,800 meters of water equivalent). Such a detector could measure the CNO neutrino rate with 5 sigma sensitivity, and significantly improve the precision of the 7Be and pep neutrino rates compared to the currently available results from the Borexino organic liquid scintillator detector. Measurements with ~2%, ~10% and ~15% precision for 7Be, pep, and CNO neutrinos, respectively, are possible.
Does the Loss of ARID1A (BAF-250a) Expression in Endometrial Clear Cell Carcinomas Have Any Clinicopathologic Significance? A Pilot Assessment
Oluwole Fadare, Idris L. Renshaw, Sharon X. Liang
Journal of Cancer , 2012,
Abstract: SWI/SNF chromatin-modification complexes use the energy of ATP hydrolysis to remodel nucleosomes and to affect transcription and several cellular processes. Accordingly, their loss of function has been associated with malignant transformation. ARID1A (the expression of whose product, BAF250a, a key complex component, is lost when mutated) has recently been identified as a tumor suppressor gene that is mutated in 46-57% of ovarian clear cell carcinoma (CCC). The purposes of this study are to assess the frequency of loss of BAF250a expression in endometrial CCC and whether this loss has any discernable clinicopathologic implications. 34 endometrial carcinomas with a CCC component (including 22 pure CCC, 8 mixed carcinomas with a 10% CCC component, and 4 carcinosarcomas with a CCC epithelial component), were evaluated by immunohistochemistry using a monoclonal antibody directed against the human BAF250a protein. 5 (22.7%) of the 22 pure CCC were entirely BAF250a negative, whereas the remainder showed diffuse immunoreactivity. None of 4 carcinosarcomas and only 1 (12.5%) of the 8 mixed carcinomas were BAF250a negative. There was no discernable relationship between BAF250a immunoreactivity status and tumor architectural patterns (solid, papillary or tubulocystic areas) or cell type (flat, hobnail or polygonal). Of the 22 patients with pure CCC, 14, 2, 3, and 3 were International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics stages 1, II, III and IV respectively. Interestingly, all 5 BAF250a negative cases were late stage [stages III or IV] as compared with 1 of 17 BAF250a positive cases (p=0.0002). Thus, 83% (5/6) of all late stage cases were BAF250a [-], as compared with 0 (0%) of the 16 early stage (I or II) cases (p=.0002). BAF250a negative and positive cases did not show any statistically significant difference regarding patient age and frequency of lymphovascular invasion or myometrial invasion. As may be anticipated from the concentration of late stage cases in the BAF250a negative group, patient outcomes were worsened in that group on univariate analysis. In conclusion, we found in this pilot assessment that 22.7% of endometrial CCC displays complete loss of BAF250a expression. There was a disproportionate concentration of BAF250a negative cases in the late stage group, with the attendant possibility of an associated worsened prognosis for those CCC patients whose tumors are BAF250a negative. These preliminary findings suggest the need for larger analyses to evaluate the prognostic significance, if any, of the loss of BAF250a expression in this rare histoty
Tnfa Signaling Through Tnfr2 Protects Skin Against Oxidative Stress–Induced Inflammation
Sergio Candel equal contributor,Sofía de Oliveira equal contributor,Azucena López-Mu?oz,Diana García-Moreno,Raquel Espín-Palazón,Sylwia D. Tyrkalska,María L. Cayuela,Stephen A. Renshaw,Raúl Corbalán-Vélez,Inmaculada Vidal-Abarca,Huai-Jen Tsai,José Meseguer,María P. Sepulcre,Victoriano Mulero
PLOS Biology , 2014, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pbio.1001855
Abstract: TNFα overexpression has been associated with several chronic inflammatory diseases, including psoriasis, lichen planus, rheumatoid arthritis, and inflammatory bowel disease. Paradoxically, numerous studies have reported new-onset psoriasis and lichen planus following TNFα antagonist therapy. Here, we show that genetic inhibition of Tnfa and Tnfr2 in zebrafish results in the mobilization of neutrophils to the skin. Using combinations of fluorescent reporter transgenes, fluorescence microscopy, and flow cytometry, we identified the local production of dual oxidase 1 (Duox1)-derived H2O2 by Tnfa- and Tnfr2-deficient keratinocytes as a trigger for the activation of the master inflammation transcription factor NF-κB, which then promotes the induction of genes encoding pro-inflammatory molecules. In addition, pharmacological inhibition of Duox1 completely abrogated skin inflammation, placing Duox1-derived H2O2 upstream of this positive feedback inflammatory loop. Strikingly, DUOX1 was drastically induced in the skin lesions of psoriasis and lichen planus patients. These results reveal a crucial role for TNFα/TNFR2 axis in the protection of the skin against DUOX1-mediated oxidative stress and could establish new therapeutic targets for skin inflammatory disorders.
Increased frontal lobe phosphocreatine levels observed in heavy cocaine users after treatment for cocaine dependence – An 1H MRS T2 relaxometry study
Y. Ke,C. Streeter,S. Lowen,L. E. Nassar,A. M. Parow,J. Hennen,D. A. Yurglun-Todd,O. Sarid-Segal,L. A. Awad,M. Rendall,S. A. Gruber,A. Nason,M. J. Mudrick,S. R. Blank,D. A. Ciraulo,P. F. Renshaw
Spectroscopy: An International Journal , 2003, DOI: 10.1155/2003/859107
Abstract: We have recently reported that relative concentrations of phosphocreatine (PCr) and creatine (Cr) may be estimated from brain 1H MR spectra based upon T2 relaxation times. Emission tomography studies have consistently associated cocaine dependence and abstinence with decreased cerebral metabolism. We hypothesized that increased frontal lobe PCr levels would accompany treatment for cocaine dependence. Twenty-four cocaine dependent (CD) subjects were studied before and after 8 weeks of cocaine dependence treatment. Nine comparison subjects were studied at the same time points. At baseline, left frontal lobe ratios of PCr/tCr were 0.406±0.081 in CD subjects and 0.411±0.016 in comparison subjects. After treatment, these ratios increased 14.3% (0.464 vs. 0.406;p = 0.006) in CD subjects, remaining unchanged in comparison subjects (2.9%, 0.399 vs. 0.411; p = 0.480). At baseline, PCr levels of non?responders were 17.8% lower (0.375 vs. 0.442; p = 0.042) than those of responders, defined as 25% decrease in urine cocaine metabolites. After treatment, CD subjects had increased PCr levels: 18.4% (0.444 vs. 0.375; p = 0.035) for non-responders and 10.4% (0.488 vs. 0.442; p = 0.092) for responders. These results are consistent with decreased cerebral metabolism during treatment, measured as increased PCr. This is the first report using 1H MRS T2 relaxometry to measure a change in human brain energetics.
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