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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 461846 matches for " A. Kokkas "
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The Role of DNA in Forensic Odontology (Part I) DNA Analysis Methods
C. Stavrianos,A. Eliades,A. Kokkas
Research Journal of Medical Sciences , 2012, DOI: 10.3923/rjmsci.2010.334.339
Abstract: During the last years, DNA analysis methods are applied to forensic cases. Also, forensic dental record comparison has been used for human identification in cases where destruction of bodily tissues or prolonged exposure to the environment has made other means of identification impractical, i.e., after fire exposure, aircraft inflammation or mass disasters. Dental DNA represent an excellent source of genomic DNA. The interest in using dental tissues as a DNA-source of individual identification falls within the particular character of resistance of this organ towards physical or chemical exterior aggressions. DNA can be used for determination of the found remains identity. The identification of individuals is not the only use for DNA. The technique has allowed criminal investigators to link victims to crime scenes once the body has been removed and incinerated. Therefore, it is prudent for the forensic odontologist to become familiar with the DNA analysis methods. The purpose of the Part I of this report is to review of the DNA structure and explain of some common terms which are used for the description of current methods of DNA analysis. Furthermore, the importance of mitochondrial DNA is reported because of its difference from the nuclear or chromosomal DNA in a number of ways that make it an attractive alternative for forensic analysis.
An Interesting Unusual Case Report of Madly Endodontic Treatments
C. Stavrianos,A. Eliades,A. Kokkas
Research Journal of Medical Sciences , 2012, DOI: 10.3923/rjmsci.2010.98.101
Abstract: A number of reports have been published concerning neuralgia and other complications of the inferior alveolar nerve following a penetration of root canal filling or endo-file into or close to the mandibular canal. Endodontic infections of posterior maxillary teeth sometimes spread to the maxillary sinus, generating severe complications. Also, endodontic implications of the maxillary sinus include the introduction of endodontic instruments and materials beyond the apices of posterior teeth in close proximity to the sinus. Clinicians should be aware of the fact that endodontic instruments and filling materials (solid or liquid) can be extended in such a degree that can lead to neurological or sinus complications, i.e., dysaesthesia of the inferior alveolar nerve or sinusitis, due to the proximity of the apices of the mandibular molars and premolars to the inferior alveolar canal and the maxillary posterior teeth to the sinus floor membrane. An interesting and unusual case of iatrogenic complications due to madly endodontic therapies is presented.
The Role of DNA in Forensic Odontology: Part II
C. Stavrianos,A. Eliades,A. Kokkas
Research Journal of Medical Sciences , 2012, DOI: 10.3923/rjmsci.2010.309.314
Abstract: During the last years, DNA analysis methods are applied to forensic cases. Also, forensic dental record comparison has been used for human identification in cases where destruction of bodily tissues or prolonged exposure to the environment has made other means of identification impractical, i.e., after fire exposure, aircraft inflammation or mass disasters. Teeth represent an excellent source of genomic DNA. The interest in using dental tissues as a DNA-source of individual identification falls within the particular character of resistance of this organ towards physical or chemical exterior aggressions. Because of their resistant nature to environmental assaults such as incineration, immersion, trauma, multilation and decomposition, teeth represent an excellent source of DNA material. When conventional dental identification methods fail, this biological material can provide the necessary link to prove identity. Even root-filled teeth supply sufficient biological material for PCR analysis in order to be compared with known antemortem samples or paternal DNA. DNA can be used for determination of the found remains identity. The identification of individuals is not the only use for dental DNA. The technique has allowed criminal investigators to link victims to crime scenes once the body has been removed and incinerated. Therefore, it is prudent for the forensic odontologist to become familiar with the fundamentals for obtaining and analyzing DNA from the oral and dental tissues. The purpose of the Part II of this report is to review of the application of the DNA technology to forensic odontology cases, the responsibilities of the odontologist and the importance of DNA extracted from oral and dental tissues and saliva.
Applications of Forensic Dentistry: Part-II
C. Stavrianos,A. Kokkas,A. Eliades,E. Andreopoulos
Research Journal of Medical Sciences , 2012, DOI: 10.3923/rjmsci.2010.187.194
Abstract: The purpose of the study is to review and present the aims and the applications of Forensic dentistry. Bite marks are usually seen in cases involving sexual assault, murder, child abuse and can be a major factor in leading to a conviction. Bite marks can be found anywhere on a body particularly on soft and fleshy tissue such as the stomach or buttocks. In addition, bite marks can be found on objects present at the scene of the crime. However, there are two types of family violence, the child abuse and the adult violence in the house or marital abuse or elder abuse. These types of family violence can happen to any of environment. Child abuse, intimate partner abuse and elder abuse victims often have signs of injury or bite marks that are readily visible to dentists. Dentists have a moral and legal obligation to recognize and report suspected abuse. It is important to realize that all dentists have a unique opportunity and ethical obligation to assist in the struggle against child abuse. The dentists are likely to be in contact with these individuals who have been exposed to this kind of violence. The dental team that is alert to the fact that many elderly or vulnerable person or child are abused and that many of these abused individuals have injuries to the head and around the mouth may be able to identify an abused person and institute steps that might save someone s life. Finally, the important role of forensic odontology in archaeological research is reported.
Applications of Forensic Dentistry: Part-I
C. Stavrianos,A. Kokkas,E. Andreopoulos,A. Eliades
Research Journal of Medical Sciences , 2012, DOI: 10.3923/rjmsci.2010.179.186
Abstract: The purpose of this study is to review and present the aims and the applications of forensic dentistry. Dental science plays a vital role in the detection and solution of crime. Forensic dentistry compares and demonstrates post or ante-mortem dental findings to identify an unknown body. Facial reconstruction is a method used in forensic anthropology to aid in the identification of skeletal remains. Age estimation is a process of particular interest in cases of forensic dentistry. Root dentine translucency of single-rooted teeth is the only parameter giving accurate results for age estimation. Also, a dental practitioner must be able to identify and report to the authorities any kind of child or elder abuse and neglect. Thus, the analysis of bite marks is a major aspect for Forensic dentistry. Terrorism and mass disasters are sad realities of modern life. The Forensic dentist has the obligation to know how to provide immediate health care and how to collect and extract all findings. However, physicians receive minimal training in oral health, dental injury and diseases. This is the reason why they may not detect dental aspects of Forensic dentistry. Therefore, physicians and dentists are encouraged to collaborate so as to increase the prevention, detection and treatment of these conditions.
808 nm Diode Laser in Oral Surgery: A Case Report of Laser Removal of Fibroma
A. Eliades,C. Stavrianos,A. Kokkas,P. Kafas,I. Nazaroglou
Research Journal of Medical Sciences , 2012, DOI: 10.3923/rjmsci.2010.175.178
Abstract: A number of reports have been published concerning laser applications in oral and facial practice. Laser performance is a common surgical procedure in the field of oral surgery, implant dentistry, endodontic treatment and periodontic therapy as well. Fibroma excision is a procedure usually done for aesthetic and functional reasons. The role of laser surgery in the oral cavity is well established. The use of diode laser removing a fibroma is currently under investigation. The benefits of oral-laser surgery i.e., a relatively bloodless surgical and post-surgical course, minimal swelling and scarring and reduction of post-surgical pain are discussed. An interesting case of removal of a fibroma with a 808 nm diode laser is presented.
The Role of Expert Witness in the Adversarial English and Welsh Legal System
C. Stavrianos,C. Papadopoulos,L. Vasiliadis,A. Pantazis,A. Kokkas
Research Journal of Medical Sciences , 2012, DOI: 10.3923/rjmsci.2011.4.8
Abstract: Historically, the civil procedures in England and Wales follow an adversarial approach. The criminal procedures started to develop an adversary system only in the 18th century. Since medieval times, the law system has grappled with issues as to when and how to use expert knowledge to assist it in the resolution of disputes. The earliest records of expert witness date back to the 14th century and involve cases in which surgeons were summoned to establish as whether a wound was fresh. The role of an expert witness is to assist the court on matters within their expertise. Courts rely on expert witness testimony in most civil and criminal cases to explain scientific matters that may not be understood by the judge or the jury. It is especially important for the dentist to demonstrate confidence in his testimony especially during the cross-examination. Above all the expert witness should keep in mind during the time of intensive interrogation that it is not him on trial even though it may seem to be at some times.
Elder Abuse: Two Cases
C. Stavrianos,E.M. Dietrich,L. Zouloumis,A. Kokkas
Research Journal of Medical Sciences , 2012, DOI: 10.3923/rjmsci.2010.357.361
Abstract: The prevalence of elder abuse and neglect increases in the modern societies as a result of global and population aging. It may take different forms such as physical, verbal, emotional, sexual abuse, exploitation, neglect and abandonment. We present two cases of elder abuse. The first case is a male patient with dementia presenting periorbital and facial ecchymoses resulting from interfamilial violence. The second case is a female with facial injuries, bone fractures and severe brain injuries. Elder mistreatment remains even in the 21st century a well hidden issue. There are many factors that are featured as risk factors for elder abuse. Poverty and ageism are the two main risk factors according to the United Nations Report in 2002. In addition, risk factors are interdependent, rendering the problem of elder abuse complex. Its management requires its handling as a social problem. In this manner, dental and medical education should provide skills for the diagnosis of elder abuse as well as for the understanding of the complex interaction between injuries and illness in the elderly. These approaches need a cooperation of many professionals from different faculties that will be alert in order to detect cases of mistreatment that usually remain undetected. Conclusively, regardless of the strategies being chosen for the management of elder abuse and neglect, the aim should be the protection of the dignity and the rights of the elderly in order to provide healthy and active aging.
Dentist s Action after Identifying Child Sexual Assault
C. Stavrianos,A. Kokkas,H. Katsikogiani,G. Tretiakov
Research Journal of Medical Sciences , 2012, DOI: 10.3923/rjmsci.2010.157.165
Abstract: Child sexual abuse is a form of child maltreatment with a variety of sexual offences which has intervened widely in modern societies. It is a morbid phenomenon which has turned to be one of the most high-profile crimes, outlawed in every developed country. The purpose of this report is to review the dental aspects in the identification of child sexual assault. The symptoms vary and may be developed either as psychological alteration or as physical signs or as a combination of both. One can notice oral injuries (e.g., Orofacial trauma) or infections as a sign of a preceded sexual abuse as the oral cavity is a frequent site of this kind of assault. Oral, perioral and pharyngeal gonorrhea in prepubertal children is another pathognomic sign. Child maltreatment may also affect its behaviour in the dental office. It is common sense that treating a dental patient involves valuation of its general medical condition and not only looking inside its mouth. Injuries inflicted by one s mouth may leave clues regarding the time and nature of the injury as well as the identity of the perpetrator. The contribution of the dentist can be remarkable as he can be the first person that comes in touch with the child, recognising signs and symptoms of preceded sexual maltreatment. After identifying such conditions he is obliged by the law to refer the child for further and meticulous examination by a specialist doctor and provide the authorities with all the dental and medical documents that he possesses.
Contributing in the Identification of Missing Children: The Dentist s Role
C. Stavrianos,P. Kafas,H. Katsikogiani,G. Tretiakov,A. Kokkas
Research Journal of Medical Sciences , 2012, DOI: 10.3923/rjmsci.2010.128.135
Abstract: Missing children is a multi-dimensional problem with raising percentages of children and young people that become missed lately. This fact has led all the relevant authorities to more coordinated efforts in order to facilitate the investigations and support the parents. Additionally in these procedures forensic odontology can play a very important role by the means that are now available. Parents in cooperation with their dentist can collect child s individual data by recording dental radiographs, facial photographs, studying casts, dental histories, teeth present, distinguishing features of oral structures and bite registrations. Toothprints, a trademarked product is an arch-shaped thermoplastic dental impression wafer which depicts child s individual characteristics. In addition collection of saliva DNA and engravation of serial number in their teeth can aid in the identification of a missing child. The Dentist is obliged by the law to provide copies of all the Dental Records in case of a missing child. A detailed dental record, updated at recall appointments, establishes an excellent database of confidential, state-of-the-art child identification information that can be retrieved easily stored safely and updated properly. The American Academy of Paediatric Dentistry (AAPD), recognizing the role that dental records play in forensic identification, encourages dental practitioners and administrators of child identification programs to implement simple practices that can aid in the investigation and identification of missing and unknown infants, children and adolescents.
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