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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 461700 matches for " A. Khalda "
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Isolation and Molecular Characterization of Mycoplasma gallisepticum and Mycoplasma synoviae in Chickens in Sudan
Khalda A. Khalifa,Egbal Sidahmed Abdelrahim,Magdi Badwi,Amal M. Mohamed
Journal of Veterinary Medicine , 2013, DOI: 10.1155/2013/208026
Abstract: The current study described the isolation and molecular detection of Mycoplasma gallisepticum (Mg) and Mycoplasma synoviae from tracheal swabs of diseased birds showing signs of respiratory distress in selected commercial (layer and broiler) farms and from yolk and an open air of pens of vaccinated breeder flocks in Sudan. A number of 45?Mycoplasma isolates were recovered from chickens in Khartoum, Gezira, and Equatoria states in Sudan. Of these, eight Mg and three Ms isolates were identified using growth inhibition and rapid serum agglutination (RSA) tests. The conventional PCR technique was applied to amplify 140?bp and 720?bp DNA fragments for the Mg and Ms, respectively. This research confirmed vertical and horizontal transmission of Mg from breeder farms through detection of Mg in yolk of fertile eggs and an air of pens despite previous vaccination. PCR is considered a rapid, sensitive, and cheap method and it will improve the diagnosis of Mycoplasma in chickens. 1. Introduction Avian mycoplasmosis was primarily described in turkeys in 1926 and in chickens in 1936 [1]. Mycoplasma gallisepticum (Mg) infection is usually designated as chronic respiratory disease of chickens and infectious sinusitis in turkeys. It is characterized by respiratory rales, coughing, nasal discharges, and frequently by sinusitis in turkeys by synovitis. Mycoplasma synoviae (Ms) infection is usually known as infectious synovitis, an acute-to-chronic infectious disease for chickens and turkeys involving primarily the synovial membranes of joints and tendons sheaths. However, during recent years, Ms has less frequently been associated with synovitis but more frequently associated with airsacculitis in chickens and sometimes in turkeys [2]. Both diseases are economically important, egg transmitted and hatchery disseminated diseases. They lead to tremendous economic losses in poultry production as a result of decreased hatchability and egg production, reduced quality of day-old chicks, reduced growth rate, increased costs of eradication procedures which involve site cleaning and depopulation, and increased costs of medication and vaccination [3]. The first isolation of both mycoplasmas in Sudan was reported by Khalda [4]. A recent study indicated that these organisms were prevalent, as 50.8% Mg and 57.6% Ms antibodies were recorded in chickens in the country [5]. For many years, diagnosis of avian mycoplasmosis was based on serological assays to detect antibody production and/or on isolation and identification of the organism. Serological tests include the rapid slide
Paleoenvironmental Implications from Biomarker Investigations on the Pliocene Lower Sajau Lignite Seam in Kasai Area, Berau Basin, Northeast Kalimantan, Indonesia  [PDF]
Khalda Az Zahra, Ahmad Helman Hamdani, R. Tina Rosmalina
Journal of Geoscience and Environment Protection (GEP) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/gep.2015.35016

Pliocene age lignites from Lower Sajau seam, from borehole in Berau Basin, Northeast Kalimantan, Indonesia were investigated with respect to organic geochemistry by HPLC, GC and GC/MS. The analysis was conducted to drilling sequence of Kasai Coal Field, Berau Basin which has been applied to identify organic sources and maturity of organic matter. The result of normalized yields of the soluble organic matter (SOM) data indicates saturated and aromatic proportion of hydrocarbon are very low (under 10%), this was reflecting that lignite coal is still in immature stage. Moreover, biomarker hydrocarbon such as diterpenoids was not found from the sample that indicates absence of gymnosperm precursor in the paleo-peat. In contrast, there was great abundance of terpenoid biomarkers including lupane and oleanane showing domination of angiosperms indicate that angiosperm was dominated vegetation source. There also hopanoid biomarkers explaining acidic depositional environment in coal formation and microbes-affected conditions in peat formation process. Ratio of Tm/Ts shows paleomire where ratios value of Tm/Ts is in range of oxide condition.

An out Break of Gumboro Disease Associated with Colibacillosis among Broiler and Layer Chicks in Kassala State, Eastern Sudan
M.M. Omer,A. Khalda,S.M. Abusalab,M.M. Gumaa,S.A. Mulla,A.M. Ahmed
Research Journal of Poultry Sciences , 2012,
Abstract: Gumboro disease associated with Colibacillosis in exotic layer and broiler chicks was reported in eastern Sudan. Mortality rate of the disease, 1.8% in layer and 1% in broiler chicks was recorded. In addition to, Escherichia coli (E. coli) was isolated from a layer chick. Factors which contributed to this were stated. Moreover some recommendations were outlined.
APOA2 Polymorphism in Relation to Obesity and Lipid Metabolism
Moushira Erfan Zaki,Khalda Sayed Amr,Mohamed Abdel-Hamid
Cholesterol , 2013, DOI: 10.1155/2013/289481
Abstract: Objectives. This study aims to analysis the relationship between c.-492T>C polymorphism in APOA2 gene and the risk for obesity in a sample of Egyptian adolescents and investigates its effect on body fat distribution and lipid metabolism. Material and Methods. A descriptive, cross-sectional study was conducted on 303 adolescents. They were 196 obese and 107 nonobese, aged 16–19 years old. Variables examined included body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), waist to hip ratio (WHR), systolic and diastolic blood pressure (BP), body fat percentage (BF%), abdominal visceral fat layer, and dietary intake. Abdominal visceral fat thickness was determined by ultrasonography. The polymorphism in the APOA2 c.-492T>C was analyzed by PCR amplification. Results. Genotype frequencies were in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. The frequency of the mutant C allele was significantly higher in obese cases compared to nonobese. After multivariate adjustment, waist, BF% and visceral adipose layer, food consumption, and HDL-C were significantly higher in homozygous allele CC carriers than TT+TC carriers. Conclusions. Homozygous individuals for the C allele had higher obesity risk than carriers of the T allele and had elevated levels of visceral adipose tissue and serum HDL-C. Moreover, the study shows association between the APOA2 c.-492T>C polymorphism and food consumption. 1. Introduction Obesity-linked genetic variations in the presence of other routine habits such as smoking, physical inactivity, and unhealthy food intake may greatly raise the risk of a person developing heart diseases (cardiovascular diseases, CVD). Excess body fat, obesity, is one of the most common disorders in clinical practice. The location of the body fat is a major determinant of the degree of excess morbidity and mortality due to obesity [1]. At least two components of body fat are associated with obesity-related adverse health outcomes. These are the amount of subcutaneous truncal or abdominal fat, and the amount of visceral fat located in the abdominal cavity. Each of these components of body fat is associated with varying degrees of metabolic abnormalities and independently predicts adverse health outcomes. Many complex traits are thought to be inherited since they often run in families. However, these complex traits do not show typical mendelian pedigree patterns. These nonmendelian diseases may depend on several susceptibility loci, with a variable contribution from environmental factors. Discovering the major susceptibility locus may be the key to advances in understanding the
A survey of oral health in a Sudanese population
Nadia Khalifa, Patrick F Allen, Neamat H Abu-bakr, Manar E Abdel-Rahman, Khalda O Abdelghafar
BMC Oral Health , 2012, DOI: 10.1186/1472-6831-12-5
Abstract: A descriptive population-based survey of Sudanese adults aged ≥ 16 years was conducted. After stratified sampling, 1,888 adult patients from public dental hospitals and dental health centres scattered across Khartoum State, including different ethnic groups present in Sudan, were examined in 2009-10. Data were collected using patient interviews and clinical examinations. Dental status was recorded using the DMFT index, community periodontal index (CPI), and a validated tooth wear index.Caries prevalence was high, with 87.7% of teeth examined having untreated decay. Periodontal disease increased in extent and severity with age. For 25.8% of adults, tooth wear was mild; 8.7% had moderate and 1% severe toothwear. Multivariate analysis revealed that decay was less prevalent in older age groups but more prevalent in southern tribes and frequent problem based attenders; western tribes and people with dry mouths who presented with less than18 sound, untreated natural teeth (SUNT). Older age groups were more likely to present with tooth wear; increasing age and gender were associated with having periodontal pocketing ≥ 4 mm.The prevalence of untreated caries and periodontal disease was high in this population. There appear to be some barriers to restorative dental care, with frequent use of dental extractions to treat caries and limited use of restorative dentistry. Implementation of population-based strategies tailored to the circumstances of Sudanese population is important to improve oral health status in Sudan.According to the World Health Organisation (WHO), "oral health means being free of diseases and disorders that affect the mouth and oral cavity" [1]. Several factors including social [2], behavioural [3], and medical [4] seem to play a role in oral disease progression. Descriptive population health surveys provide a basis for estimation of the oral health status of a population and its future needs for oral health care.Dental caries experience is commonly recorded
Biological Pathotyping of Newcastle Disease Viruses in Sudan 2008–2013
Egbal Sidahmed Abdelrahim Bilal,Iman Mohammed Elnasri,Aymen Mohamed Alhassan,Khalda Abdelaziz Khalifa,Jedddha Ibrahim Elhag,Selma Osman Ahmed
Journal of Veterinary Medicine , 2014, DOI: 10.1155/2014/209357
Abstract: The biological properties and pathogenicity of seven Newcastle disease virus field isolates were studied. These isolates were recovered from different outbreaks in Sudan (5 from chickens and 2 from pigeons) during 2008–2013. Based on intracerebral pathogenicity index, four NDV isolates were characterized as velogenic (their ICPI ranged 2.0–1.6) and three isolates were characterized as mesogenic (ICPI ranged 1.2–1.3). The mean death time for all isolates ranged from 54 to 76.8 hours. The elution time of the viruses from chicken erythrocytes and the ability to haemagglutinate mammalian red blood cells differed considerably in their reactions. 1. Introduction Newcastle disease (ND) is still considered as an economically important disease which is highly contagious infection for many avian species. ND is caused by virulent strains of avian paramyxovirus type 1 (APMV-1) of the genus Avulavirus belonging to the family Paramyxoviridae [1]. According to the World Organization for Animal Health (OIE, 2012), ND is an OIE notifiable disease when it meets certain criteria of virulence. Newcastle disease affects a wide range of domestic and wild avian species; however, the severity of the disease varies greatly, spanning from peracute disease with almost 100% mortality to subclinical disease with no lesions. Such variability makes it impossible to pinpoint ND as a single clinicopathologic entity [2]. Based on severity of clinical disease, the strains of NDV were originally classified into 3 groups based on their virulence such as lentogenic, mesogenic, and velogenic. Lentogenic strains, especially in adult chickens, may cause minimal or no clinical signs. However, the disease produced by mesogenic strains may cause mortality that can reach 25% and those by in velogenic strains may reach up to 100% [3] Differences in virulence of the virus occur during any disease outbreak, so determining virulence is essential for the effective control of the disease. ND was first reported in Sudan in 1951 [4] and still constituted a major problem facing the poultry industry. Newcastle disease virus (NDV) exhibits a wide range of pathogenicity and virulence. Assessment of the virulence of NDV is necessary in order to limit the outbreaks and to minimize their impact. So the aim of this study was to evaluate the pathogenicity of some NDV field strains isolated 2008–2013. 2. Materials and Methods 2.1. Viruses Seven NDV viruses were isolated from different hosts, including chickens (layers and broilers) and pigeons from several regions in Sudan during 2008 to 2013 from cases submitted
The Spread of Infectious Disease on Network Using Neutrosophic Algebraic Structure  [PDF]
A. Zubairu, A. A. Ibrahim
Open Journal of Discrete Mathematics (OJDM) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/ojdm.2017.72009
Abstract: Network theory and its associated techniques has tremendous impact in various discipline and research, from computer, engineering, architecture, humanities, social science to system biology. However in recent years epidemiology can be said to utilizes these potentials of network theory more than any other discipline. Graph which has been considered as the processor in network theory has a close relationship with epidemiology that dated as far back as early 1900 [1]. This is because the earliest models of infectious disease transfer were in a form of compartment which defines a graph even though adequate knowledge of mathematical computation and mechanistic behavior is scarce. This paper introduces a new type of disease propagation on network utilizing the potentials of neutrosophic algebraic group structures and graph theory.
A Comparative Investigation of Lead Sulfate and Lead Oxide Sulfate Study of Morphology and Thermal Decomposition  [PDF]
S. A. A. Sajadi
American Journal of Analytical Chemistry (AJAC) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/ajac.2011.22024
Abstract: The compound lead oxide sulfate PbSO4.PbO was prepared in our laboratory. The Thermal behavior of PbSO4 was studied using techniques of Thermogravimetry under air atmosphere from 25 to 1200°C. The identity of both compounds was confirmed by XRD technique. Results obtained using both techniques support same decomposition stages for this compound. The electron microscopic investigations are made by SEM and TEM. The compound is characterized by XRD and the purity was determined by analytical Methods. Also a series of thermogravimetric analysis is made and the ideal condition is determined to convert this compound to pure lead oxide.
Metal ion-binding properties of L-glutamic acid and L-aspartic acid, a comparative investigation  [PDF]
S. A. A. Sajadi
Natural Science (NS) , 2010, DOI: 10.4236/ns.2010.22013
Abstract: A comparative research has been developed for acidity and stability constants of M(Glu)1, M(Asp)2 and M(Ttr)3 complexes, which have been determined by potentiometric pH titration. Depending on metal ion-binding properties, vital differences in building complex were observed. The present study indicates that in M(Ttr) com-plexes, metal ions are arranged to the carboxyl groups, but in M(Glu) and M(Asp), some metal ions are able to build chelate over amine groups. The results mentioned-above demonstrate that for some M(Glu) and M(Asp) complexes, the stability constants are also largely determined by the affinity of metal ions for amine group. This leads to a kind of selectivity of metal ions, and transfers them through building complexes accompanied with glutamate and aspartate. For heavy metal ions, this building complex helps the absorption and filtration of the blood plasma, and consequently, the excursion of heavy metal ions takes place. This is an important method in micro-dialysis. In this study the different as-pects of stabilization of metal ion complexes regarding to Irving-Williams sequence have been investigated.
Determining the Basaltic Sequence Using Seismic Reflection and Resistivity Methods  [PDF]
A. Alanezi, A. Qadrouh
Open Journal of Geology (OJG) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ojg.2013.32B004

This study was carried out in Harat Rahat (south of Almadinah Almonwarah) using seismic reflection and resistivity methods. The main objectives of this study are to determine the extent of the basaltic layer and to define the subsurface faults and fractures that could affect and control the groundwater movement in the study area. A 2D seismic profile was acquired and the result shows that the subsurface in the study area has a major fault. We obtained a well match when the seismic result was compared with drilled wells. As a complementary tool, the resistivity method was applied in order to detect the groundwater level. The results of the resistivity method showed that six distinct layers have been identified. The interpretation of these six layers show that the first three layers, the fourth layer, the fifth layer and the bottom of the section indicated various subsurface structures and lithologies; various basaltic layers, fractured basalt, weathered basement and fresh basaltic layers, respectively. It is obvious that the eventual success of geophysical surveys depend on the combination with other subsurface data sources in order to produce accurate maps.

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