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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 554481 matches for " A. K. Geim "
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Graphene: Status and Prospects
A. K. Geim
Physics , 2009, DOI: 10.1126/science.1158877
Abstract: Graphene is a wonder material with many superlatives to its name. It is the thinnest material in the universe and the strongest ever measured. Its charge carriers exhibit giant intrinsic mobility, have the smallest effective mass (it is zero) and can travel micrometer-long distances without scattering at room temperature. Graphene can sustain current densities 6 orders higher than copper, shows record thermal conductivity and stiffness, is impermeable to gases and reconciles such conflicting qualities as brittleness and ductility. Electron transport in graphene is described by a Dirac-like equation, which allows the investigation of relativistic quantum phenomena in a bench-top experiment. What are other surprises that graphene keeps in store for us? This review analyses recent trends in graphene research and applications, and attempts to identify future directions in which the field is likely to develop.
The rise of graphene
A. K. Geim,K. S. Novoselov
Physics , 2007,
Abstract: Graphene is a rapidly rising star on the horizon of materials science and condensed matter physics. This strictly two-dimensional material exhibits exceptionally high crystal and electronic quality and, despite its short history, has already revealed a cornucopia of new physics and potential applications, which are briefly discussed here. Whereas one can be certain of the realness of applications only when commercial products appear, graphene no longer requires any further proof of its importance in terms of fundamental physics. Owing to its unusual electronic spectrum, graphene has led to the emergence of a new paradigm of 'relativistic' condensed matter physics, where quantum relativistic phenomena, some of which are unobservable in high energy physics, can now be mimicked and tested in table-top experiments. More generally, graphene represents a conceptually new class of materials that are only one atom thick and, on this basis, offers new inroads into low-dimensional physics that has never ceased to surprise and continues to provide a fertile ground for applications.
Electron scattering on microscopic corrugations in graphene
M. I. Katsnelson,A. K. Geim
Physics , 2007, DOI: 10.1098/rsta.2007.2157
Abstract: We discuss various scattering mechanisms for Dirac fermions in single-layer graphene. It is shown that scattering on a short-range potential (due to, for example, neutral impurities) is mostly irrelevant for electronic quality of graphene, which is likely to be controlled by charged impurities and ripples (microscopic corrugations of a graphene sheet). The latter are an inherent feature of graphene due to its two-dimensional nature and can also be an important factor in defining the electron mean free path. We show that certain types of ripples create a long-range scattering potential, similar to Coulomb scatterers, and result in charge-carrier mobility practically independent on carrier concentration, in agreement with experimental observations.
Van der Waals heterostructures
A. K. Geim,I. V. Grigorieva
Physics , 2013, DOI: 10.1038/nature12385
Abstract: Research on graphene and other two-dimensional atomic crystals is intense and likely to remain one of the hottest topics in condensed matter physics and materials science for many years. Looking beyond this field, isolated atomic planes can also be reassembled into designer heterostructures made layer by layer in a precisely chosen sequence. The first - already remarkably complex - such heterostructures (referred to as 'van der Waals') have recently been fabricated and investigated revealing unusual properties and new phenomena. Here we review this emerging research area and attempt to identify future directions. With steady improvement in fabrication techniques, van der Waals heterostructures promise a new gold rush, rather than a graphene aftershock.
Chiral tunneling and the Klein paradox in graphene
M. I. Katsnelson,K. S. Novoselov,A. K. Geim
Physics , 2006, DOI: 10.1038/nphys384
Abstract: The so-called Klein paradox - unimpeded penetration of relativistic particles through high and wide potential barriers - is one of the most exotic and counterintuitive consequences of quantum electrodynamics (QED). The phenomenon is discussed in many contexts in particle, nuclear and astro- physics but direct tests of the Klein paradox using elementary particles have so far proved impossible. Here we show that the effect can be tested in a conceptually simple condensed-matter experiment by using electrostatic barriers in single- and bi-layer graphene. Due to the chiral nature of their quasiparticles, quantum tunneling in these materials becomes highly anisotropic, qualitatively different from the case of normal, nonrelativistic electrons. Massless Dirac fermions in graphene allow a close realization of Klein's gedanken experiment whereas massive chiral fermions in bilayer graphene offer an interesting complementary system that elucidates the basic physics involved.
The optical conductivity of graphene in the visible region of the spectrum
T. Stauber,N. M. R. Peres,A. K. Geim
Physics , 2008, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevB.78.085432
Abstract: We compute the optical conductivity of graphene beyond the usual Dirac cone approximation, giving results that are valid in the visible region of the conductivity spectrum. The effect of next nearest neighbor hoping is also discussed. Using the full expression for the optical conductivity, the transmission and reflection coefficients are given. We find that even in the optical regime the corrections to the Dirac cone approximation are surprisingly small (a few percent). Our results help in the interpretation of the experimental results reported by Nair {\it et al.} [Science {\bf 320}, 1308 (2008)].
Scattering of electrons by clusters of charged impurities in graphene
M. I. Katsnelson,F. Guinea,A. K. Geim
Physics , 2009,
Abstract: It is shown that clustering of charged impurities on graphene can suppress their contribution to the resistivity by a large factor of about the number of impurities per cluster, while leaving the density dependence unchanged. If the cluster size is large in comparison with the Fermi wavelength, the scattering cross section shows sharp resonances as a function of incident angle and electron wavevector. In this regime, due to dominant contribution of scattering by small angles, the transport cross section can be much smaller than the quantum one, which can be verified experimentally by comparing the Dingle temperature and the electron mean free path.
Fine Structure in Magnetization of Individual Fluxoid States
A. K. Geim,S. V. Dubonos,J. J. Palacios
Physics , 2000, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.85.1528
Abstract: Each time a vortex enters or exits a small superconductor, a different fluxoid state develops. We have observed splitting and sharp kinks on magnetization curves of such individual states. The features are the manifestation of first and second order transitions, respectively, and reveal the existence of distinct vortex phases within a superconducting state with a fixed number of fluxoids. We show that the kinks indicate the merger of individual vortices into a single giant vortex while the splitting is attributed to transitions between different arrays of the same number of vortices.
Energy gaps, topological insulator state and zero-field quantum Hall effect in graphene by strain engineering
F. Guinea,M. I. Katsnelson,A. K. Geim
Physics , 2009, DOI: 10.1038/nphys1420
Abstract: Among many remarkable qualities of graphene, its electronic properties attract particular interest due to a massless chiral character of charge carriers, which leads to such unusual phenomena as metallic conductivity in the limit of no carriers and the half-integer quantum Hall effect (QHE) observable even at room temperature [1-3]. Because graphene is only one atom thick, it is also amenable to external influences including mechanical deformation. The latter offers a tempting prospect of controlling graphene's properties by strain and, recently, several reports have examined graphene under uniaxial deformation [4-8]. Although the strain can induce additional Raman features [7,8], no significant changes in graphene's band structure have been either observed or expected for realistic strains of approx. 10% [9-11]. Here we show that a designed strain aligned along three main crystallographic directions induces strong gauge fields [12-14] that effectively act as a uniform magnetic field exceeding 10 T. For a finite doping, the quantizing field results in an insulating bulk and a pair of countercirculating edge states, similar to the case of a topological insulator [15-20]. We suggest realistic ways of creating this quantum state and observing the pseudo-magnetic QHE. We also show that strained superlattices can be used to open significant energy gaps in graphene's electronic spectrum.
Cyclotron Resonance study of the electron and hole velocity in graphene monolayers
R. S. Deacon,K-C. Chuang,R. J. Nicholas,K. S. Novoselov,A. K. Geim
Physics , 2007, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevB.76.081406
Abstract: We report studies of cyclotron resonance in monolayer graphene. Cyclotron resonance is detected using the photoconductive response of the sample for several different Landau level occupancies. The experiments measure an electron velocity at the K- (Dirac) point of $c_{K}^{*}$ = 1.093 x 10$^{6}$ ms$^{-1}$ and in addition detect a significant asymmetry between the electron and hole bands, leading to a difference in the electron and hole velocities of 5% by energies of 125 meV away from the Dirac point.
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