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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 654345 matches for " A. J. Shields "
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LINER/H II "Transition" Nuclei and the Nature of NGC 4569
A. J. Barth,J. C. Shields
Physics , 2000, DOI: 10.1086/316583
Abstract: Motivated by the discovery of young, massive stars in the nuclei of some LINER/H II ``transition'' nuclei such as NGC 4569, we have computed photoionization models to determine whether some of these objects may be powered solely by young star clusters rather than by accretion-powered active nuclei. The models were calculated with the photoionization code CLOUDY, using evolving starburst continua generated by the the STARBURST99 code of Leitherer et al. (1999). We find that the models are able to reproduce the emission-line spectra of transition nuclei, but only for instantaneous bursts of solar or higher metallicity, and only for ages of ~3-5 Myr, the period when the extreme-ultraviolet continuum is dominated by emission from Wolf-Rayet stars. For clusters younger than 3 Myr or older than 6 Myr, and for models with a constant star-formation rate, the softer ionizing continuum results in an emission spectrum more typical of H II regions. This model predicts that Wolf-Rayet emission features should appear in the spectra of transition nuclei. While such features have not generally been detected to date, they could be revealed in observations having higher spatial resolution. Demographic arguments suggest that this starburst model may not apply to the majority of transition nuclei, particularly those in early-type host galaxies, but it could account for some members of the transition class in hosts of type Sa and later. The starburst models during the Wolf-Rayet-dominated phase can also reproduce the narrow-line spectra of some LINERs, but only under conditions of above-solar metallicity and only if high-density gas is present (n_e >~ 10^5 cm^{-3}). This scenario could be applicable to some ``Type 2'' LINERs which do not show any clear signs of nonstellar activity.
Comment on 'Secure Communication using mesoscopic coherent states', Barbosa et al, Phys Rev Lett 90, 227901 (2003)
Z. L. Yuan,A. J. Shields
Physics , 2005, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.94.048901
Abstract: In a recent letter, Barbosa et al [PRL 90, 227901(2003)] claim that secure communication is possible with bright coherent pulses, by using quantum noise to hide the data from an eavesdropper. We show here that the secrecy in the scheme of Barbosa et al is unrelated to quantum noise, but rather derives from the secret key that sender and receiver share beforehand.
Continuous operation of a one-way quantum key distribution system over installed telecom fibre
Z. L. Yuan,A. J. Shields
Physics , 2005, DOI: 10.1364/OPEX.13.000660
Abstract: We demonstrate a robust, compact and automated quantum key distribution system, based upon a one-way Mach-Zender interferometer, which is actively compensated for temporal drifts in the photon phase and polarization. The system gives a superior performance to passive compensation schemes with an average quantum bit error rate of 0.87% and a duty cycle of 99.6% for a continuous quantum key distribution session of 19 hours over a 20.3km installed telecom fibre. The results suggest that actively compensated QKD systems are suitable for practical applications.
Resilience of gated avalanche photodiodes against bright illumination attacks in quantum cryptography
Z. L. Yuan,J. F. Dynes,A. J. Shields
Physics , 2011, DOI: 10.1063/1.3597221
Abstract: Semiconductor avalanche photodiodes (APDs) are commonly used for single photon detection in quantum key distribution. Recently, many attacks using bright illumination have been proposed to manipulate gated InGaAs APDs. In order to devise effective counter-measures, careful analysis of these attacks must be carried out to distinguish between incorrect operation and genuine loopholes. Here, we show that correctly-operated, gated APDs are immune to continuous-wave illumination attacks, while monitoring the photocurrent for anomalously high values is a straightforward counter-measure against attacks using temporally tailored light.
Reply to "Comment on `Resilience of gated avalanche photodiodes against bright illumination attacks in quantum cryptography'"
Z. L. Yuan,J. F. Dynes,A. J. Shields
Physics , 2011, DOI: 10.1063/1.3658807
Abstract: This is a Reply to the Comment by Lydersen et al. [arXiv: 1106.3756v1].
Avoiding the Detector Blinding Attack on Quantum Cryptography
Z L Yuan,J F Dynes,A J Shields
Physics , 2010, DOI: 10.1038/nphoton.2010.269
Abstract: We show the detector blinding attack by Lydersen et al [1] will be ineffective on most single photon avalanche photodiodes (APDs) and certainly ineffective on any detectors that are operated correctly. The attack is only successful if a redundant resistor is included in series with the APD, or if the detector discrimination levels are set inappropriately.
Magneto-photoluminescence of GaN/AlGaN quantum wells: valence band reordering and excitonic binding energies
P. A. Shields,R. J. Nicholas,N. Grandjean,J. Massies
Physics , 2001, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevB.63.245319
Abstract: A re-ordered valence band in GaN/AlGaN quantum wells with respect to GaN epilayers has been found as a result of the observation of an enhanced g-factor in magneto-luminescence spectra in fields up to 55 T. This has been caused by a reversal of the states in the strained AlGaN barriers thus giving different barrier heights for the different quantum well hole states. From k.p calculations in the quasi-cubic approximation, a change in the valence-band ordering will account for the observed values for the g-factors. We have also observed the well-width dependence of the in-plane extent of the excitonic wavefunction from which we infer an increase in the exciton binding energy with the reduction of the well width in general agreement with theoretical calculations of Bigenwald et al (phys. stat. sol. (b) 216, 371 (1999)) that uses a variational approach in the envelope function formalism that includes the effect of the electric field in the wells.
Calibrated sky imager for aerosol optical properties determination
A. Cazorla,J. E. Shields,M. E. Karr,A. Burden
Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics Discussions , 2008,
Abstract: The calibrated ground-based sky imager developed in the Marine Physical Laboratory, the Whole Sky Imager (WSI), has been tested to determine optical properties of the atmospheric aerosol. Different neural network-based models calculate the aerosol optical depth (AOD) for three wavelengths using the radiance extracted from the principal plane of sky images from the WSI as input parameters. The models use data from a CIMEL CE318 photometer for training and validation and the wavelengths used correspond to the closest wavelengths in both instruments. The spectral dependency of the AOD, characterized by the ngstr m exponent α in the interval 440–870, is also derived using the standard AERONET procedure and also with a neural network-based model using the values obtained with a CIMEL CE318. The deviations between the WSI derived AOD and the AOD retrieved by AERONET are within the nominal uncertainty assigned to the AERONET AOD calculation (±0.01), in 80% of the cases. The explanation of data variance by the model is over 92% in all cases. In the case of α, the deviation is within the uncertainty assigned to the AERONET α (±0.1) in 50% for the standard method and 84% for the neural network-based model. The explanation of data variance by the model is 63% for the standard method and 77% for the neural network-based model.
Unconditionally secure one-way quantum key distribution using decoy pulses
Z. L. Yuan,A. W. Sharpe,A. J. Shields
Physics , 2006, DOI: 10.1063/1.2752766
Abstract: We report here a complete experimental realization of one-way decoy-pulse quantum key distribution, demonstrating an unconditionally secure key rate of 5.51 kbps for a 25.3 km fibre length. This is two orders of magnitudes higher than the value that can be obtained with a non-decoy system. We introduce also a simple test for detecting the photon number splitting attack and highlight that it is essential for the security of the technique to fully characterize the source and detectors used.
An avalanche-photodiode-based photon-number-resolving detector
B. E. Kardynal,Z. L. Yuan,A. J. Shields
Physics , 2008, DOI: 10.1038/nphoton.2008.101
Abstract: Avalanche photodiodes are widely used as practical detectors of single photons.1 Although conventional devices respond to one or more photons, they cannot resolve the number in the incident pulse or short time interval. However, such photon number resolving detectors are urgently needed for applications in quantum computing,2-4 communications5 and interferometry,6 as well as for extending the applicability of quantum detection generally. Here we show that, contrary to current belief,3,4 avalanche photodiodes are capable of detecting photon number, using a technique to measure very weak avalanches at the early stage of their development. Under such conditions the output signal from the avalanche photodiode is proportional to the number of photons in the incident pulse. As a compact, mass-manufactured device, operating without cryogens and at telecom wavelengths, it offers a practical solution for photon number detection.
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