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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 654393 matches for " A. J. Collin "
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Multiband bosons in optical lattices
J. Larson,A. Collin,J. -P. Martikainen
Physics , 2008, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevA.79.033603
Abstract: We study a gas of repulsively interacting bosons in an optical lattice and explore the physics beyond the lowest band Hubbard model. Utilizing a generalized Gutzwiller ansatz, we find how the lowest band physics is modified by the inclusion of the first excited bands. In contrast to the prediction of the lowest band Bose-Hubbard model, a reentrant behavior of superfluidity is envisaged as well as decreasing width of the Mott lobes at strong coupling.
Energy-dependent effective interactions for dilute many-body systems
A. Collin,P. Massignan,C. J. Pethick
Physics , 2006, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevA.75.013615
Abstract: We address the issue of determining an effective two-body interaction for mean-field calculations of energies of many-body systems. We show that the effective interaction is proportional to the phase shift, and demonstrate this result in the quasiclassical approximation when there is a trapping potential in addition to the short-range interaction between a pair of particles. We calculate numerically energy levels for the case of an interaction with a short-range square-well and a harmonic trapping potential and show that the numerical results agree well with the analytical expression. We derive a generalized Gross--Pitaevskii equation which includes effective range corrections and discuss the form of the electron--atom effective interaction to be used in calculations of Rydberg atoms and molecules.
Coreless vortex ground state of the rotating spinor condensate
J. -P. Martikainen,A. Collin,K. -A. Suominen
Physics , 2002, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevA.66.053604
Abstract: We study the ground state of the rotating spinor condensate and show that for slow rotation the ground state of the ferromagnetic spinor condensate is a coreless vortex. While coreless vortex is not topologically stable, we show that there is an energetic threshold for the creation of a coreless vortex. This threshold corresponds to a critical rotation frequency that vanishes as the system size increases. Also, we demonstrate the dramatically different behavior of the spinor condensate with anti-ferromagnetic interactions. For anti-ferromagnetic spinor condensate the angular momentum as a function of rotation frequency exhibits the familiar staircase behavior, but in contrast to an ordinary condensate the first step is to the state with angular momentum 1/2 per particle.
Statistical Review of UK Residential Sector Electrical Loads
G. Tsagarakis,A. J. Collin,A. E. Kiprakis
Physics , 2013, DOI: 10.1515/ijeeps-2013-0078
Abstract: This paper presents a comprehensive statistical review of data obtained from a wide range of literature on the most widely used electrical appliances in the UK residential load sector. It focuses on individual appliances and begins by consideration of the electrical operations performed by the load. This approach allows for the loads to be categorised based on the electrical characteristics, and also provides information on the reactive power characteristics of the load, which is often neglected from standard consumption statistics. This data is particularly important for power system analysis. In addition to this, device ownership statistics and probability distribution functions of power demand are presented for the main residential loads. Although the data presented is primarily intended as a resource for the development of load profiles for power system analysis, it contains a large volume of information which provides a useful database for the wider research community.
89Y NMR Probe of Zn Induced Local Magnetism in YBa2(Cu(1-y)Zn(y))3O(6+x)
A. V. Mahajan,H. Alloul,G. Collin,J. F. Marucco
Physics , 1999, DOI: 10.1007/s100510050058
Abstract: We present detailed data and analysis of the effects of Zn substitution on the planar Cu site in YBa$_2$Cu$_3$O$_{6+x}$ (YBCO$_{6+x}$) as evidenced from our $^{89}$Y NMR measurements on oriented powders. For $x<<1$ we find additional NMR lines which are associated with the Zn substitution. From our data on the intensities and temperature dependence of the shift, width, and spin-lattice relaxation rate of these resonances, we conclude that the spinless Zn 3$d$$^{10}$ state induces local moments on the near-neighbour ($% nn$) Cu atoms. Additionally, we conjecture that the local moments actually extend to the farther Cu atoms with the magnetization alternating in sign at subsequent $nn$ sites. We show that this analysis is compatible with ESR data taken on dilute Gd doped (on the Y site) and on neutron scattering data reported recently on Zn substituted YBCO$_{6 + x}$. For optimally doped compounds $^{89}$Y $nn$ resonances are not detected, but a large $T$% -dependent contribution to the $^{89}$Y NMR linewidth is evidenced and is also attributed to the occurence of a weak induced local moment near the Zn. These results are compatible with macroscopic magnetic measurements performed on YBCO$_{6 + x}$ samples prepared specifically in order to minimize the content of impurity phases. We find significant differences between the present results on the underdoped YBCO$_{6 + x}$ samples and $% ^{27}$Al NMR data taken on Al$^{3+}$ substituted on the Cu site in optimally doped La$_2$CuO$_4$. Further experimental work is needed to clarify the detailed evolution of the impurity induced magnetism with hole content in the cuprates.
Collective modes and the broken symmetry of a rotating attractive Bose gas in an anharmonic trap
A. Collin
Physics , 2005, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevA.73.013611
Abstract: We study the rotational properties of an attractively interacting Bose gas in a quadratic + quartic potential. The low-lying modes of both rotational ground state configurations, namely the vortex and the center of mass rotating states, are solved. The vortex excitation spectrum is positive for weak interactions but the lowest modes decrease rapidly to negative values when the interactions become stronger. The broken rotational symmetry involved in the center of mass rotating state induces the appearance of an extra zero-energy mode in the Bogoliubov spectrum. The excitations of the center of mass rotational state also demonstrate the coupling between the center of mass and relative motions.
Inhibition of p38 MAPK Suppresses Inflammatory Cytokine Induction by Etoposide, 5-Fluorouracil, and Doxorubicin without Affecting Tumoricidal Activity
Collin R. Elsea, Daniel A. Roberts, Brian J. Druker, Lisa J. Wood
PLOS ONE , 2008, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0002355
Abstract: Cancer patients undergoing treatment with systemic cancer chemotherapy drugs often experience debilitating fatigue similar to sickness behavior, a normal response to infection or tissue damage caused by the production of the inflammatory cytokines IL-1β, TNF-α, and IL-6. The p38 mitogen activated protein kinase (p38 MAPK) plays a central role in the production of these cytokines and consequently the development of sickness behavior. Targeted inhibitors of p38 MAPK can reduce systemic inflammatory cytokine production and the development of sickness behavior. Several systemic cancer chemotherapy drugs have been shown to stimulate inflammatory cytokine production, yet whether this response is related to a common ability to activate p38 MAPK is not known and is the focus of this study. This understanding may present the possibility of using p38 MAPK inhibitors to reduce chemotherapy-induced inflammatory cytokine production and consequently treatment-related fatigue. One caveat of this approach is a potential reduction in chemotherapeutic efficacy as some believe that p38 MAPK activity is required for chemotherapy-induced cytotoxicity of tumor cells. The purpose of this study was to demonstrate proof of principal that p38 MAPK inhibition can block chemotherapy- induced inflammatory cytokine production without inhibiting drug-induced cytotoxicity using murine peritoneal macrophages and Lewis Lung Carcinoma (LLC1) cells as model cell systems. Using these cells we assessed the requirement of etoposide, doxorubicin, 5-flourouracil, and docetaxel for p38 MAPK in inflammatory cytokine production and cytotoxicity. Study findings demonstrate that clinically relevant doses of etoposide, doxorubicin, and 5-FU activated p38 MAPK in both macrophages and LLC1 cells. In contrast, docetaxel failed to activate p38 MAPK in either cell type. Activation of p38 MAPK mediated the drug's effects on inflammatory cytokine production in macrophages but not LLC1 cytotoxicity and this was confirmed with inhibitor studies.
Disinhibition Bursting of Dopaminergic Neurons
Collin J. Lobb,Todd W. Troyer,Charles J. Wilson,Carlos A. Paladini
Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience , 2011, DOI: 10.3389/fnsys.2011.00025
Abstract: Substantia nigra pars compacta (SNpc) dopaminergic neurons receive strong tonic inputs from GABAergic neurons in the substantia nigra pars reticulata (SNpr) and globus pallidus (GP), and glutamatergic neurons in the subthalamic nucleus. The presence of these tonic inputs raises the possibility that phasic disinhibition may trigger phasic bursts in dopaminergic neurons. We first applied constant NMDA and GABAA conductances onto a two-compartment single cell model of the dopaminergic neuron (Kuznetsov et al., 2006). The model exhibited disinhibition bursting upon stepwise removal of inhibition. A further bifurcation analysis suggests that disinhibition may be more robust than excitation alone in that for most levels of NMDA conductance, the cell remains capable of bursting even after a complete removal of inhibition, whereas too much excitatory input will drive the cell into depolarization block. To investigate the network dynamics of disinhibition, we used a modified version of an integrate-and-fire based model of the basal ganglia (Humphries et al., 2006). Synaptic activity generated in the network was delivered to the two-compartment single cell dopaminergic neuron. Phasic activation of the D1-expressing medium spiny neurons in the striatum (D1STR) produced disinhibition bursts in dopaminergic neurons through the direct pathway (D1STR to SNpr to SNpc). Anatomical studies have shown that D1STR neurons have collaterals that terminate in GP. Adding these collaterals to the model, we found that striatal activation increased the intra-burst firing frequency of the disinhibition burst as the weight of this connection was increased. Our studies suggest that striatal activation is a robust means by which disinhibition bursts can be generated by SNpc dopaminergic neurons, and that recruitment of the indirect pathway via collaterals may enhance disinhibition bursting.
Dynamics of the Local Moment Induced by Nonmagnetic Defects in Cuprates
W. A. MacFarlane,J. Bobroff,H. Alloul,P. Mendels,N. Blanchard,G. Collin,J. -F. Marucco
Physics , 1999, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.85.1108
Abstract: We present a study of the spin dynamics of magnetic defects induced by Li substitution of the plane Cu in the normal state of YBa$_2$Cu$_3$O$_{6+x}$. The fluctuations of the coupled Cu magnetic moments in the vicinity of Li are probed by near-neighbour $^{89}$Y {\it and} $^7$Li NMR spin lattice relaxation. The data indicates that the magnetic perturbation fluctuates as a single entity with a correlation time $\tau$ which scales with the local static susceptibility. This behaviour is reminiscent of the low $T$ Kondo state of magnetic impurities in conventional metals. Surprisingly it extends well above the ``Kondo'' temperature for the underdoped pseudogapped case.
Persistence of Li Induced Kondo Moments in the Superconducting State of Cuprates
J. Bobroff,H. Alloul,W. A. MacFarlane,P. Mendels,N. Blanchard,G. Collin,J. -F. Marucco
Physics , 2000, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.86.4116
Abstract: We measure the magnetic susceptibility nearby Li spinless impurities in the superconducting phase of the high Tc cuprate YBaCuO. The induced moment which was found to exist above Tc persists below Tc. In the underdoped regime, it retains its Curie law below Tc. In contrast, near optimal doping, the large Kondo screening observed above Tc (T_K=135 K) is strongly reduced below Tc as expected theoretically when the superconducting gap develops. This moment still extends essentially on its 4 near neighbour Cu, showing the persistence of AF correlations in the superconducting state. A direct comparison with recent STM results of Pan et al. is proposed.
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