Abstract:
When the chemical potential of an electron system has a discontinuity at a density $n^{*}$, the system is said to be incompressible and a finite energy is required to create mobile charges in the bulk of the system. The quantum Hall effect is associated with incompressibilities in a two-dimensional electron system that occur at magnetic-field dependent densities, $n^{*}(B)$. In these notes we discuss two aspects of the physics of quantum Hall systems that follow directly from this association.

Abstract:
When the quantum Hall effect occurs in a two-dimensional electron gas, all low-energy elementary excitations are localized near the system edge. The edge acts in many ways like a one-dimensional ring of electrons, except that a finite current flows around the ring in equilibrium. This article is a brief and informal review of some of the physics of quantum Hall system edges. We discuss the implications of macroscopic {\em compressible strip} models for microscopic {chiral Luttinger liquid} models and make an important distinction between the origin of non-Fermi-liquid behavior in fractional quantum Hall edges and in usual one-dimensional electron gas systems.

Abstract:
In the strong magnetic field fractional quantum Hall regime, electrons in a two-dimensional electron system are confined to their lowest Landau level. Because of the macroscopic Landau level degeneracy nearly all physical properties at low energies and temperatures are then entirely determined by electron-electron interactions. The properties of these non-Fermi-liquid electronic systems continue to surprise. In this article we briefly survey some recent advances in the physics of the fractional Hall regime.

Abstract:
These lecture notes attempt to explain the main ideas of the theory of the quantum Hall effect. The emphasis is on the localization and interaction physics in the extreme quantum limit which gives rise to the quantum Hall effect. The interaction physics in the extreme quantum limit which is responsible for the fractional quantum Hall effect is discussed at length and from an elementary point of view.

Abstract:
The spin degree of freedom can play an essential role in determining the electrical transport properties of spin-polarized electron systems in metals or semiconductors. In this article, I address the dependence of spin-subsystem chemical potentials on accumulated spin-densities. I discuss both approaches which can be used to measure this fundamental thermodynamic quantity and the microscopic physics which determines its value in several different systems.

Abstract:
We show that the low-temperature sash features in the lowest Landau-level (LLL) tunneling density-of-states (TDOS) recently discovered by Dial and Ashoori are intimately related to the discrete Haldane-pseudopotential interaction energy scales that govern fractional quantum Hall physics. Our analysis is based on expressions for the tunneling density-of-states which become exact at filling factors close to $\nu=0$ and $\nu=1$, where the sash structure is most prominent. We comment on other aspects of LLL correlation physics that can be revealed by accurate temperature-dependent tunneling data.

Abstract:
The three-dimensional electron-gas model has been a major focus for many-body theory applied to the electronic properties of metals and semiconductors. Because the model neglects band effects, whereas electronic systems are generally more strongly correlated in narrow band systems, it is most widely used to describe the qualitative physics of weakly correlated metals with unambiguous Fermi liquid properties. The model is more interesting in two space dimensions because it provides a quantitative description of electrons in quantum wells and because these can form strongly correlated many-particle states. We illustrate the range of possible many-particle behaviors by discussing the way correlations are manifested in 2D tunneling spectroscopy experiments.

Abstract:
We present a theory of time-dependent tunneling between a metal and a partially spin-polarized two-dimensional electron system (2DES). We find that the leakage current which flows to screen an electric field between the metal and the 2DES is the sum of two exponential contributions whose relative weights depend on spin-dependent tunneling conductances, on quantum corrections to the electrostatic capacitance of the tunnel junction, and on the rate at which the 2DES spin-polarization approaches equilibrium. For high-mobility and homogeneous 2DES's at Landau level filling factor $\nu=1$, we predict a ratio of the fast and slow leakage rates equal to $(2K+1)^2$ where $K$ is the number of reversed spins in the skyrmionic elementary charged excitations.

Abstract:
We report on a study of interaction effects in the tunneling density-of-states of a disordered two-dimensional electron gas in the strong magnetic field limit where only the lowest Landau level is occupied. Interactions in the presence of disorder are accounted for by performing finite-size self-consistent Hartree-Fock calculations. We find evidence for the formation of a pseudo-gap with a tunneling density-of-states which vanishes at the Fermi energy.

Abstract:
We derive and evaluate expressions for the frictional Coulomb drag between disordered two-dimensional electron gas layers. Our derivation is based on the memory-function formalism and the expression for the drag reduces to previously known results in the ballistic limit. We find that Coulomb drag is appreciably enhanced by disorder at low temperatures when the mean-free-path within a layer is comparable to or shorter than the layer separation. In high mobility two-dimensional electron gas systems, where the drag has been studied experimentally, the effect of disorder on the drag is negligible at attainable temperatures. We predict that an enhancement due to disorder and a crossover in the temperature-dependence and layer-separation dependence will be observable at low temperatures in moderate and low mobility samples.