Abstract:
It is shown that nonlinear terms in equations of gravitons on the background of curved space-time of the expanding Universe can solve the problem of the negative square of the effective mass formally arising in linear approximation for gravitons. Similar to well known spontaneous breaking of symmetry in Goldstone model one must take another vacuum so that nonzero vacuum expectation value of the quantized graviton field leads to change of spectrum for gravitons. There appears two graviton fields, one with the positive mass, another with the zero mass. Energy density and the density of particles created by gravitation of the expanding Universe are calculated for some special cases of the scale factor. Numerical of result are obtained for the dust universe case.

Abstract:
The idea of the quantum state of the Universe described by some density matrix, i.e mixture of at least two vacua, the trivial symmetric and the nontrivial one with spontaneously broken symmetry is discussed. Nonzero cosmological constant necessarily arises for such a state and has the observable value if one takes the axion mass for the vacuum expectation value. The Higgs model, Nambu's model and discrete symmetry breaking are considered. Human observers can observe only the world on the nonsymmetric vacuum, the world on the other vacuum is some dark matter. Gravity is due to action of two worlds. Tachyons nonobservable for visible matter can be present in the dark matter, leading to some effects of nonlocality in the space of the Universe.

Abstract:
Current thinking on the interpretation of quantum physics is reviewed, with special detail given to the Copenhagen and Everett many-worlds interpretations.

Abstract:
It is shown that nonlinear terms in equations of gravitons on the background of curved space-time of the expanding Universe can solve the problem of the negative square of the effective mass formally arising in linear approximation for gravitons. Similar to well known spontaneous breaking of symmetry in Goldstone model one must take another vacuum so that nonzero vacuum expectation value of the quantized graviton field leads to change of spectrum for gravitons. There appears two graviton fields, one with the positive mass, another with the zero mass. Energy density and the density of particles created by gravitation of the expanding Universe are calculated for some special cases of the scale factor. Numerical results are obtained for the dust universe case.

Abstract:
Scattering of particles in the gravitational field of rotating black holes is considered. It is shown that scattering energy of particles in the centre of mass system can obtain very large values not only for extremal black holes but also for nonextremal ones. Extraction of energy after the collision is investigated. It is shown that due to the Penrose process the energy of the particle escaping the hole at infinity can be large. Contradictions in the problem of getting high energetic particles escaping the black hole are resolved.

Abstract:
The hypothesis that dark matter consists of superheavy particles with the mass close to the Grand Unification scale is investigated. These particles were created from vacuum by the gravitation of the expanding Universe and their decay led to the observable baryon charge. Some part of these particles with the lifetime larger than the time of breaking of the Grand Unification symmetry became metastable and survived up to the modern time as dark matter. However in active galactic nuclei due to large energies of dark matter particles swallowed by the black hole the opposite process can occur. Dark matter particles become interacting. Their decay on visible particles at the Grand Unification energies leads to the flow of ultra high energy cosmic rays observed by the Auger group. Numerical estimates of the effect leading to the observable numbers are given.

Abstract:
Scattering of particles in the gravitational field of Kerr black holes is considered. It is shown that scattering energy of particles in the centre of mass system can obtain very large values not only for extremal black holes but also for nonextremal ones existing in Nature. This can be used for explanation of still unresolved problem of the origin of ultrahigh energy cosmic rays observed in Auger experiment. Extraction of energy after the collision is investigated. It is shown that due to the Penrose process the energy of the particle escaping the hole at infinity can be large. Contradictions in the problem of getting high energetic particles escaping the black hole are resolved.

Abstract:
The hypothesis that dark matter is converted into visible particles in active galactic nuclei is investigated. If dark matter consists of stable superheavy neutral particles and active galactic nuclei are rotating black holes, then, due to the Penrose process, superheavy particles can decay into unstable particles with larger mass, whose decay into quarks and leptons leads to events in cosmic rays observed by the Auger group. Similar processes of decay of superheavy particles of dark matter into visible matter occurred in the early Universe. Numerical estimates of the processes in active galactic nuclei and in the early Universe are given.

Abstract:
The collection of all topologies on the set of three points is studied treating the topology as quantum-like observable. It turns out to be possible under the assumption of the asymmetry between the spaces of bra- and ket-vectors. The analogies between the introduced topologimeter and the Stern-Gerlach experiments are outlined.