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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 462995 matches for " A. Gal-Yam "
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Supernovae in Galaxy Clusters
A. Gal-Yam,D. Maoz,K. Sharon,F. Prada,P. Guhathakurta,A. V. Filippenko
Physics , 2003,
Abstract: We present the results of several surveys for supernovae (SNe) in galaxy clusters. SNe discovered in deep, archival HST images were used to measure the cluster SN Ia rate to z=1. A search for SNe in nearby (0.06 < z < 0.2) Abell galaxy clusters yielded 15 SNe, 12 of which were spectroscopically confirmed. Of these, 7 are cluster SNe Ia, which we will use to measure the SN Ia rate in nearby clusters. This search has also discovered the first convincing examples of intergalactic SNe. We conclude with a brief description of ongoing and future cluster SN surveys.
Pair-Instability Explosions: observational evidence
Avishay Gal-Yam
Physics , 2012, DOI: 10.1017/S1743921312013014
Abstract: It has been theoretically predicted many decades ago that extremely massive stars that develop large oxygen cores will become dynamically unstable, due to electron-positron pair production. The collapse of such oxygen cores leads to powerful thermonuclear explosions that unbind the star and can produce, in some cases, many solar masses of radioactive 56Ni. For many years, no examples of this process were observed in nature. Here, I briefly review recent observations of luminous supernovae that likely result from pair-instability explosions, in the nearby and distant Universe.
Luminous Supernovae
Avishay Gal-Yam
Physics , 2012, DOI: 10.1126/science.1203601
Abstract: Supernovae (SNe), the luminous explosions of stars, were observed since antiquity, with typical peak luminosity not exceeding 1.2x10^{43} erg/s (absolute magnitude >-19.5 mag). It is only in the last dozen years that numerous examples of SNe that are substantially super-luminous (>7x10^{43} erg/s; <-21 mag absolute) were well-documented. Reviewing the accumulated evidence, we define three broad classes of super-luminous SN events (SLSNe). Hydrogen-rich events (SLSN-II) radiate photons diffusing out from thick hydrogen layers where they have been deposited by strong shocks, and often show signs of interaction with circumstellar material. SLSN-R, a rare class of hydrogen-poor events, are powered by very large amounts of radioactive 56Ni and arguably result from explosions of very massive stars due to the pair instability. A third, distinct group of hydrogen-poor events emits photons from rapidly-expanding hydrogen-poor material distributed over large radii, and are not powered by radioactivity (SLSN-I). These may be the hydrogen-poor analogs of SLSN-II.
The Mean Type Ia Supernova Spectrum Over the Past 9 Gigayears
M. Sullivan,R. S. Ellis,D. A. Howell,A. Riess,P. E. Nugent,A. Gal-Yam
Physics , 2009, DOI: 10.1088/0004-637X/693/2/L76
Abstract: We examine the possibility of evolution with redshift in the mean rest-frame ultraviolet (UV; <4500A) spectrum of Type Ia Supernovae (SNe Ia) sampling the redshift range 0
Studying the Diversity of Type Ia Supernovae in the Ultraviolet: Comparing Models with Observations
E. S. Walker,S. Hachinger,P. A. Mazzali,R. S. Ellis,M. Sullivan,A. Gal-Yam,D. A. Howell
Physics , 2012, DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2966.2012.21928.x
Abstract: In the ultraviolet (UV), Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) show a much larger diversity in their properties than in the optical. Using a stationary Monte-Carlo radiative transfer code, a grid of spectra at maximum light was created varying bolometric luminosity and the amount of metals in the outer layers of the SN ejecta. This model grid is then compared to a sample of high-redshift SNe Ia in order to test whether the observed diversities can be explained by luminosity and metallicity changes alone. The dispersion in broadband UV flux and colours at approximately constant optical spectrum can be readily matched by the model grid. In particular, the UV1-b colour is found to be a good tracer of metal content of the outer ejecta, which may in turn reflect on the metallicity of the SN progenitor. The models are less successful in reproducing other observed trends, such as the wavelengths of key UV features, which are dominated by reverse fluorescence photons from the optical, or intermediate band photometric indices. This can be explained in terms of the greater sensitivity of these detailed observables to modest changes in the relative abundances. Specifically, no single element is responsible for the observed trends. Due to their complex origin, these trends do not appear to be good indicators of either luminosity or metallicity.
Constitutive Nucleosome Depletion and Ordered Factor Assembly at the GRP78 Promoter Revealed by Single Molecule Footprinting
Einav Nili Gal-Yam,Shinwu Jeong,Amos Tanay,Gerda Egger,Amy S Lee,Peter A Jones
PLOS Genetics , 2006, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pgen.0020160
Abstract: Chromatin organization and transcriptional regulation are interrelated processes. A shortcoming of current experimental approaches to these complex events is the lack of methods that can capture the activation process on single promoters. We have recently described a method that combines methyltransferase M.SssI treatment of intact nuclei and bisulfite sequencing allowing the representation of replicas of single promoters in terms of protected and unprotected footprint modules. Here we combine this method with computational analysis to study single molecule dynamics of transcriptional activation in the stress inducible GRP78 promoter. We show that a 350–base pair region upstream of the transcription initiation site is constitutively depleted of nucleosomes, regardless of the induction state of the promoter, providing one of the first examples for such a promoter in mammals. The 350–base pair nucleosome-free region can be dissected into modules, identifying transcription factor binding sites and their combinatorial organization during endoplasmic reticulum stress. The interaction of the transcriptional machinery with the GRP78 core promoter is highly organized, represented by six major combinatorial states. We show that the TATA box is frequently occupied in the noninduced state, that stress induction results in sequential loading of the endoplasmic reticulum stress response elements, and that a substantial portion of these elements is no longer occupied following recruitment of factors to the transcription initiation site. Studying the positioning of nucleosomes and transcription factors at the single promoter level provides a powerful tool to gain novel insights into the transcriptional process in eukaryotes.
Type IIn supernovae at z ~ 2 from archival data
J. Cooke,M. Sullivan,E. J. Barton,J. S. Bullock,R. G. Carlberg,A. Gal-Yam,E. Tollerud
Physics , 2009, DOI: 10.1038/nature08082
Abstract: Supernovae have been confirmed to redshift z ~ 1.7 for type Ia (thermonuclear detonation of a white dwarf) and to z ~ 0.7 for type II (collapse of the core of the star). The subclass type IIn supernovae are luminous core-collapse explosions of massive stars and, unlike other types, are very bright in the ultraviolet, which should enable them to be found optically at redshifts z ~ 2 and higher. In addition, the interaction of the ejecta with circumstellar material creates strong, long-lived emission lines that allow spectroscopic confirmation of many events of this type at z ~ 2 for 3 - 5 years after explosion. Here we report three spectroscopically confirmed type IIn supernovae, at redshifts z = 0.808, 2.013 and 2.357, detected in archival data using a method designed to exploit these properties at z ~ 2. Type IIn supernovae directly probe the formation of massive stars at high redshift. The number found to date is consistent with the expectations of a locally measured stellar initial mass function, but not with an evolving initial mass function proposed to explain independent observations at low and high redshift.
A single sub-km Kuiper Belt object from a stellar Occultation in archival data
H. E. Schlichting,E. O. Ofek,M. Wenz,R. Sari,A. Gal-Yam,M. Livio,E. Nelan,S. Zucker
Physics , 2009, DOI: 10.1038/nature08608
Abstract: The Kuiper belt is a remnant of the primordial Solar System. Measurements of its size distribution constrain its accretion and collisional history, and the importance of material strength of Kuiper belt objects (KBOs). Small, sub-km sized, KBOs elude direct detection, but the signature of their occultations of background stars should be detectable. Observations at both optical and X-ray wavelengths claim to have detected such occultations, but their implied KBO abundances are inconsistent with each other and far exceed theoretical expectations. Here, we report an analysis of archival data that reveals an occultation by a body with a 500 m radius at a distance of 45 AU. The probability of this event to occur due to random statistical fluctuations within our data set is about 2%. Our survey yields a surface density of KBOs with radii larger than 250 m of 2.1^{+4.8}_{-1.7} x 10^7 deg^{-2}, ruling out inferred surface densities from previous claimed detections by more than 5 sigma. The fact that we detected only one event, firmly shows a deficit of sub-km sized KBOs compared to a population extrapolated from objects with r>50 km. This implies that sub-km sized KBOs are undergoing collisional erosion, just like debris disks observed around other stars.
The very energetic, broad-lined type Ic Supernova 2010ah (PTF10bzf) in the context of GRB/SNe
Paolo A. Mazzali,Emma S. Walker,Elena Pian,Masaomi Tanaka,Alessandra Corsi,Takashi Hattori,Avishay Gal-Yam
Physics , 2013, DOI: 10.1093/mnras/stt605
Abstract: SN2010ah, a very broad-lined type Ic SN discovered by the Palomar Transient Factory, was interesting because of its relatively high luminosity and the high velocity of the absorption lines, which was comparable to that of GRB/SNe, suggesting a high explosion kinetic energy. However, no GRB was detected in association with the SN. Here, the properties of SN2010ah are determined with higher accuracy than previous studies through modelling. New Subaru telescope photometry is presented. A bolometric light curve is constructed taking advantage of the spectral similarity with SN1998bw. Radiation transport tools are used to reproduce the spectra and the light curve. The results thus obtained regarding ejecta mass, composition and kinetic energy are then used to compute a synthetic light curve. This is in reasonable agreement with the early bolometric light curve of SN2010ah, but a high abundance of 56Ni at high velocity is required to reproduce the early rise, while a dense inner core must be used to reproduce the slow decline at late phases. The high-velocity 56Ni cannot have been located on our line of sight, which may be indirect evidence for an off-axis, aspherical explosion. The main properties of SN2010ah are: ejected mass ~ 3 Mo; kinetic energy ~10^52 erg, M(56Ni) ~ 0.25 Mo. The mass located at v >~ 0.1c is ~0.2 Mo. Although these values, in particular the kinetic energy, are quite large for a SN Ic, they are all smaller (especially the ejecta mass) than those typical of GRB/SNe. This confirms the tendency for these quantities to correlate, and suggests that there are minimum requirements for a GRB/SN, which SN2010ah may not meet although it comes quite close. Depending on whether a neutron star or a black hole was formed following core collapse, SN2010ah was the explosion of a CO core of ~ 5-6 Mo, pointing to a progenitor mass of ~24 - 28 Mo.
Long duration radio transients lacking optical counterparts are possibly Galactic Neutron Stars
E. O. Ofek,B. Breslauer,A. Gal-Yam,D. Frail,M. M. Kasliwal,S. R. Kulkarni,E. Waxman
Physics , 2009, DOI: 10.1088/0004-637X/711/1/517
Abstract: (abridged) Recently, a new class of radio transients in the 5-GHz band was detected by Bower et al. We present new deep near-Infrared (IR) observations of the field containing these transients, and find no counterparts down to a limiting magnitude of K=20.4 mag. We argue that the bright (>1 Jy) radio transients recently reported by Kida et al. are consistent with being additional examples of the Bower et al. transients. We refer to these groups of events as "long-duration radio transients". The main characteristics of this population are: time scales longer than 30 minute but shorter than several days; rate, ~10^3 deg^-2 yr^-1; progenitors sky surface density of >60 deg^-2 (95% C.L.) at Galactic latitude ~40 deg; 1.4-5 GHz spectral slopes, f_\nu ~ \nu^alpha, with alpha>0; and most notably the lack of any counterparts in quiescence in any wavelength. We rule out an association with many types of objects. Galactic brown-dwarfs or some sort of exotic explosions remain plausible options. We argue that an attractive progenitor candidate for these radio transients is the class of Galactic isolated old neutron stars (NS). We confront this hypothesis with Monte-Carlo simulations of the space distribution of old NSs, and find satisfactory agreement for the large areal density. Furthermore, the lack of quiescent counterparts is explained quite naturally. In this framework we find: the mean distance to events in the Bower et al. sample is of order kpc; the typical distance to the Kida et al. transients are constrained to be between 30 pc and 900 pc (95% C.L.); these events should repeat with a time scale of order several months; and sub-mJy level bursts should exhibit Galactic latitude dependence. We discuss possible mechanisms giving rise to the observed radio emission.
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