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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 581836 matches for " A. G. Russell "
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Tyrosine hydroxylase and Lewy body molecules immunoreactivity in the SNC neurons of an AS/AGU mutantrat  [PDF]
A. G. Al-Kushi, D. Russell, A. P. Payne
World Journal of Neuroscience (WJNS) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/wjns.2012.23023
Abstract: The AS/AGU rat has a recessive single point mutation in the gene coding for the gamma isoform of protein kinase C (PKC-γ) resulting in a failure to release dopamine in the striatum and impaired movement including a staggering gait, difficulty in initiating movement and a slight whole body tremor. This study examined the levels tyrosine hydroxylase, ubiquitin and parkin in individual SNC cell bodies, there was no evidence of a reduction in tyrosine hydroxylase levels although levels of ubiquitin and parkin were elevated in the cytoplasm. The findings support the hypothesis that the initial bar to dopamine availability in the striatum is reduced release, with substantia nigra cell death being a later phenomenon.
The Moon Meets All Requirements of the IAU Definition for “Planet”  [PDF]
David G. Russell
International Journal of Astronomy and Astrophysics (IJAA) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/ijaa.2017.74024
Abstract: The Earth-Moon system has often been characterized as having some characteristics of a “double planet” system. It is demonstrated that while the orbital barycenter of the Earth-Moon pair lies inside the radius of the Earth, the Moon does meet all three requirements of the IAU definition for “planet” and therefore the Moon can correctly be identified as the Solar System’s 9th planet. In order to avoid confusion by this development it is necessary to add definitions for “double planet”, “double dwarf planet”, “satellite planet”, and “satellite” to complement the International Astronomical Union definitions for “planet” and “dwarf planet”. The Earth-Moon system meets the requirements of a “double planet” system while the Pluto-Charon system meets the requirements of a “double dwarf planet” system. In order to extrapolate sub-stellar taxonomy to exoplanetary systems, general formation mechanisms (star-like gas collapse in molecular clouds vs. proto-planetary disk formation) should be included in the definitions for the various classes of sub-stellar mass bodies.
Physical role of topological constraints in localised magnetic relaxation
A. R. Yeates,A. J. B. Russell,G. Hornig
Physics , 2014,
Abstract: Predicting the final state of turbulent plasma relaxation is an important challenge, both in astrophysical plasmas such as the Sun's corona and in controlled thermonuclear fusion. Recent numerical simulations of plasma relaxation with braided magnetic fields identified the possibility of a novel constraint, arising from the topological degree of the magnetic field-line mapping. This constraint implies that the final relaxed state is drastically different for an initial configuration with topological degree 1 (which allows a Taylor relaxation) and one with degree 2 (which does not reach a Taylor state). Here we test this transition in numerical resistive-magnetohydrodynamic simulations, by embedding a braided magnetic field in a linear force-free background. Varying the background force-free field parameter generates a sequence of initial conditions with a transition between topological degree 1 and 2. For degree 1, the relaxation produces a single twisted flux tube, while for degree 2 we obtain two flux tubes. For predicting the exact point of transition, it is not the topological degree of the whole domain that is relevant, but only that of the turbulent region.
The role of sea-salt emissions and heterogeneous chemistry in the air quality of polluted coastal areas
E. Athanasopoulou,M. Tombrou,S. N. Pandis,A. G. Russell
Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics Discussions , 2008,
Abstract: Open-ocean and surf-zone sea-salt aerosol (SSA) emissions algorithms are incorporated in the CAMx aerosol model and applied over an area with an extended Archipelago (Greece), with a fine grid nested over the highly populated Attica peninsula. The maximum indirect impact of SSA on PM10 mass (35%) is located over a marine area with moderate SSA production and elevated shipping emissions (central Aegean Sea) where SSA interacts with anthropogenic nitric acid forming sodium nitrate. SSA increases PM10 levels in the Athens city center up to 27% during stable onshore winds. Under such conditions both open-ocean and surf-zone mechanisms contribute to aerosol production over Attica. A hybrid scheme for gas-to-particle mass transfer is necessary for accurately simulating semi-volatile aerosol components when coarse SSA is included. Dynamically simulating mass transfer to the coarse particles leads to a quadrupling of predicted PM10 nitrate in the Athens city center and up to two orders of magnitude in its coarse mass in comparison to using a bulk equilibrium approach.
The effect of lightning NOx production on surface ozone in the continental United States
B. Kaynak,Y. Hu,R. V. Martin,A. G. Russell
Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics Discussions , 2008,
Abstract: Lightning NOx emissions calculated using the U.S. National Lightning Detection Network data were found to account for 30% of the total NOx emissions for July–August 2004, a period chosen both for having higher lightning NOx production and high ozone levels, thus maximizing the likelihood that such emissions could impact peak ozone levels. Including such emissions led to modest, but sometimes significant increases in simulated surface ozone when using the Community Multi-scale Air Quality Model (CMAQ). Three model simulations were performed, two with the addition of lightning NOx emissions, and one without. Domain-wide daily maximum 8-h ozone changes due to lightning NOx were less than 2 ppbv in 71% of the cases with a maximum of 10-ppbv; whereas the difference in 1-h ozone was less than 2 ppbv in 77% of the cases with a maximum of 6 ppbv. Daily maximum 1-h and 8-h ozone for grids containing O3 monitoring stations changed slightly, with more than 43% of the cases differing less than 2 ppbv. The greatest differences were 42-ppbv for both 1-h and 8-h O3, though these tended to be on days of lower ozone. Lightning impacts on the season-wide maximum 1-h and 8-h averaged ozone decreased starting from the 1st to 4th highest values (an average of 4th highest, 8-h values is used for attainment demonstration in the U.S.). Background ozone values from the y-intercept of O3 versus NOz curve were 42.2 and 43.9 ppbv for simulations without and with lightning emissions, respectively. Results from both simulations with lightning NOx suggest that while North American lightning production of NOx can lead to significant local impacts on a few occasions, they will have a relatively small impact on typical maximum levels and determination of Policy Relevant Background levels.
The role of sea-salt emissions and heterogeneous chemistry in the air quality of polluted coastal areas
E. Athanasopoulou,M. Tombrou,S. N. Pandis,A. G. Russell
Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics (ACP) & Discussions (ACPD) , 2008,
Abstract: Open-ocean and surf-zone sea-salt aerosol (SSA) emission parameterizations are incorporated in the CAMx aerosol model and applied over an area with an extended Archipelago (Greece), with a fine grid nested over the highly populated Attica peninsula. The maximum indirect impact of SSA on PM10 mass (35%) is located over a marine area with moderate SSA production and elevated shipping emissions (central Aegean Sea) where SSA interacts with anthropogenic nitric acid forming sodium nitrate. SSA increases PM10 levels in the Athens city center up to 25% during stable onshore winds. Under such conditions both open-ocean and surf-zone mechanisms contribute to aerosol production over Attica. A hybrid scheme for gas-to-particle mass transfer is necessary for accurately simulating semi-volatile aerosol components when coarse SSA is included. Dynamically simulating mass transfer to the coarse particles leads to a quadrupling of predicted PM10 nitrate in the Athens city center and up to two orders of magnitude in its coarse mass in comparison to using a bulk equilibrium approach.
The effect of lightning NOx production on surface ozone in the continental United States
B. Kaynak,Y. Hu,R. V. Martin,A. G. Russell
Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics (ACP) & Discussions (ACPD) , 2008,
Abstract: Lightning NOx emissions calculated using the US National Lightning Detection Network data were found to account for 30% of the total NOx emissions for July–August 2004, a period chosen both for having higher lightning NOx production and high ozone levels, thus maximizing the likelihood that such emissions could impact peak ozone levels. Including such emissions led to modest, but sometimes significant increases in simulated surface ozone when using the Community Multi-scale Air Quality Model (CMAQ). Three model simulations were performed, two with the addition of lightning NOx emissions, and one without. Domain-wide daily maximum 8-h ozone changes due to lightning NOx were less than 2 ppbv in 71% of the cases with a maximum of 10 ppbv; whereas the difference in 1-h ozone was less than 2 ppbv in 77% of the cases with a maximum of 6 ppbv. Daily maximum 1-h and 8-h ozone for grids containing O3 monitoring stations changed slightly, with more than 43% of the cases differing less than 2 ppbv. The greatest differences were 42 ppbv for both 1-h and 8-h O3, though these tended to be on days of lower ozone. Lightning impacts on the season-wide maximum 1-h and 8-h averaged ozone decreased starting from the 1st to 4th highest values (an average of 4th highest, 8-h values is used for attainment demonstration in the US). Background ozone values from the y-intercept of O3 versus NOz curve were 42.2 and 43.9 ppbv for simulations without and with lightning emissions, respectively. Results from both simulations with lightning NOx suggest that while North American lightning production of NOx can lead to significant local impacts on a few occasions, they will have a relatively small impact on typical maximum levels and determination of Policy Relevant Background levels.
Imaging Prominence Eruptions Out to 1 AU
Brian E. Wood,Russell A. Howard,Mark G. Linton
Physics , 2015,
Abstract: Views of two bright prominence eruptions trackable all the way to 1AU are here presented, using the heliospheric imagers on the Solar TErrestrial RElations Observatory (STEREO) spacecraft. The two events first erupted from the Sun on 2011 June 7 and 2012 August 31, respectively. Only these two examples of clear prominence eruptions observable this far from the Sun could be found in the STEREO image database, emphasizing the rarity of prominence eruptions this persistently bright. For the 2011 June event, a time-dependent 3-D reconstruction of the prominence structure is made using point-by-point triangulation. This is not possible for the August event due to a poor viewing geometry. Unlike the coronal mass ejection (CME) that accompanies it, the 2011 June prominence exhibits little deceleration from the Sun to 1 AU, as a consequence moving upwards within the CME. This demonstrates that prominences are not necessarily tied to the CME's magnetic structure far from the Sun. A mathematical framework is developed for describing the degree of self-similarity for the prominence's expansion away from the Sun. This analysis suggests only modest deviations from self-similar expansion, but close to the Sun the prominence expands radially somewhat more rapidly than self-similarity would predict.
Study of narrowband single photon emitters in polycrystalline diamond films
Russell G. Sandstrom,Olga Shimoni,Aiden A. Martin,Igor Aharonovich
Physics , 2014, DOI: 10.1063/1.4901083
Abstract: Quantum information processing and integrated nanophotonics require robust generation of single photon emitters on demand. In this work we demonstrate that diamond films grown by microwave plasma chemical vapour deposition on a silicon substrate host bright, narrowband single photon emitters in the visible to near infrared spectral range. The emitters possess fast lifetime, absolute photostability, and exhibit full polarization at excitation and emission. Pulsed and continuous laser excitations confirm their quantum behaviour at room temperature, while low temperature spectroscopy is done to investigate their inhomogeneous broadening. Our results advance the knowledge of solid state single photon sources and open pathways for their practical implementation in quantum communication and quantum information processing.
False discovery rate smoothing
Wesley Tansey,Oluwasanmi Koyejo,Russell A. Poldrack,James G. Scott
Statistics , 2014,
Abstract: We present false discovery rate smoothing, an empirical-Bayes method for exploiting spatial structure in large multiple-testing problems. FDR smoothing automatically finds spatially localized regions of significant test statistics. It then relaxes the threshold of statistical significance within these regions, and tightens it elsewhere, in a manner that controls the overall false-discovery rate at a given level. This results in increased power and cleaner spatial separation of signals from noise. The approach requires solving a non-standard high-dimensional optimization problem, for which an efficient augmented-Lagrangian algorithm is presented. We demonstrate that FDR smoothing exhibits state-of-the-art performance on simulated examples. We also apply the method to a data set from an fMRI experiment on spatial working memory, where it detects patterns that are much more biologically plausible than those detected by existing FDR-controlling methods. All code for FDR smoothing is publicly available in Python and R.
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