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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 474778 matches for " A. Fan "
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The talented interferon-gamma  [PDF]
Fan-Ching Lin, Howard A. Young
Advances in Bioscience and Biotechnology (ABB) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/abb.2013.47A3002
Abstract: IFN-γ is an extraordinarily pleotropic cytokine. It can not only heighten both the innate and adaptive immune response against pathogens and tumors, but also has the ability to maintain immune homeostasis. Since the effects of IFN-γ are cell and tissue specific, it is important to consider the recent advances in IFN-γ signaling in the context of different diseases. To this end, we review the involvement of IFN-γ in the pathogenesis of several inflammatory diseases, its therapeutic potential as an anti-tumor agent and its effects upon stem cells.
Using Hybrid and Diversity-Based Adaptive Ensemble Method for Binary Classification  [PDF]
Xing Fan, Chung-Horng Lung, Samuel A. Ajila
International Journal of Intelligence Science (IJIS) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/ijis.2018.83003
Abstract: This paper proposes an adaptive and diverse hybrid-based ensemble method to improve the performance of binary classification. The proposed method is a non-linear combination of base models and the application of adaptive selection of the most suitable model for each data instance. Ensemble method, an important machine learning technique uses multiple single models to construct a hybrid model. A hybrid model generally performs better compared to a single individual model. In a given dataset the application of diverse single models trained with different machine learning algorithms will have different capabilities in recognizing patterns in the given training sample. The proposed approach has been validated on Repeat Buyers Prediction dataset and Census Income Prediction dataset. The experiment results indicate up to 18.5% improvement on F1 score for the Repeat Buyers dataset compared to the best individual model. This improvement also indicates that the proposed ensemble method has an exceptional ability of dealing with imbalanced datasets. In addition, the proposed method outperforms two other commonly used ensemble methods (Averaging and Stacking) in terms of improved F1 score. Finally, our results produced a slightly higher AUC score of 0.718 compared to the previous result of AUC score of 0.712 in the Repeat Buyers competition. This roughly 1% increase AUC score in performance is significant considering a very big dataset such as Repeat Buyers.
Amyloid associated with elastin-staining laminar aggregates in the lungs of patients diagnosed with acute respiratory distress syndrome
Kang Fan, William A Nagle
BMC Pulmonary Medicine , 2002, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2466-2-5
Abstract: Postmortem tissues were stained using the Verhoeff-Van Gieson procedure for elastic fibers, and with Congo red for examination under a polarizing microscope. Similar samples were examined by transmission EM.The pathognomonic ELS presented as ordered molecular aggregates when stained using the Verhoeff-van Gieson technique for elastic fibers. In several postmortem lungs, the ELS also displayed apple-green birefringence after staining with Congo red, suggesting the presence of amyloid. Remarkably, most of the postmortem lungs with ELS exhibited no significant acute inflammatory cellular response such as neutrophilic reaction, and little evidence of widespread edema except for focal intra-alveolar hemorrhage.Postmortem lungs that exhibit the ELS constitute a morphologically-identifiable subgroup of ARDS cases. The ordered nature of the ELS, as indicated by both elastin and amyloid stains, together with little morphological evidence of inflammation or edema, suggests that this cohort of ARDS may represent another form of conformational disease. If this hypothesis is confirmed, it will require a new approach in the diagnosis and treatment of patients who exhibit this form of acute lung injury.Respiratory distress marked by acute lung injury (ALI), or its more severe form, acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), is a significant health problem worldwide. In the United States, the annual incidence of ALI and ARDS together is thought to be about 75 per 100,000 population [1], with the incidence of ARDS alone probably exceeding 100,000 cases per year. The mortality rates reported for ARDS are highly variable, ranging from as low as 10 to as high as 90 percent [2], owing at least in part to the "lack of a uniform definition and the heterogeneity of the causes and clinical manifestations" of the syndrome [1]. Such uncertainty has hampered efforts to identify patients at risk for developing ARDS, and subsequently, for the development of more successful therapeutic intervent
Roles of the creatine kinase system and myoglobin in maintaining energetic state in the working heart
Fan Wu, Daniel A Beard
BMC Systems Biology , 2009, DOI: 10.1186/1752-0509-3-22
Abstract: The theoretical investigation demonstrates that elimination of myoglobin only slightly increases the predicted range of oscillation of cardiac oxygenation level during beat-to-beat transients in blood flow and ATP utilization. In silico elimination of myoglobin has almost no impact on the cytoplasmic ATP hydrolysis potential (ΔGATPase). In contrast, disabling the creatine kinase system results in considerable oscillations of cytoplasmic ADP and ATP levels and seriously deteriorates the stability of ΔGATPase in the beating heart.The CK system stabilizes ΔGATPase by both buffering ATP and ADP concentrations and enhancing the feedback signal of inorganic phosphate in regulating mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation.The working heart relies on uninterrupted supplies of oxygen and substrates to maintain its normal function under different workloads [1,2]. However, during the systole the heart muscle contracts and the coronary blood flow is greatly reduced; while during the diastole the heart muscle relaxes, and the coronary blood flow approaches a maximum [1,2].Abundant myoglobin and creatine pools exist in cardiac tissue, and their roles have been extensively studied [3-8].The O2-Mb binding reaction isand the creatine kinase reaction isMyoglobin may work as an oxygen buffer [6,9], facilitate oxygen diffusion at low cellular oxygen tension [10-12], and/or catalyze chemical reactions (such as NO scavenging) [13-15]. Similarly, the creatine kinase system may either buffer cellular ATP levels or facilitate ATP diffusion inside myocytes [7,8,16].Under normoxic conditions facilitated diffusion of oxygen by oxy-myoglobin is not expected to play a significant role in oxygen transport in the myocardium [6,17,18]. Therefore we consider only the oxygen storage function of myoglobin in this computational study. The importance of CK-facilitated high-energy phosphate transport depends on diffusion path length and diffusivity of ATP and ADP in cardiomyocytes [7]. Since the myofibril
A Lightweight Universe?
Neta A. Bahcall,Xiaohui Fan
Physics , 1998, DOI: 10.1073/pnas.95.11.5956
Abstract: How much matter is there in the universe? Does the universe have the critical density needed to stop its expansion, or is the universe underweight and destined to expand forever? We show that several independent measures, especially those utilizing the largest bound systems known - clusters of galaxies - all indicate that the mass-density of the universe is insufficient to halt the expansion. A promising new method, the evolution of the number density of clusters with time, provides the most powerful indication so far that the universe has a sub-critical density. We show that different techniques reveal a consistent picture of a lightweight universe with only ~20-30% of the critical density. Thus, the universe may expand forever.
The Most Massive Distant Clusters: Determining Omega and sigma_8
Neta A. Bahcall,Xiaohui Fan
Physics , 1998, DOI: 10.1086/306088
Abstract: The existence of the three most massive clusters of galaxies observed so far at z>0.5 is used to constrain the mass density parameter of the universe, Omega, and the amplitude of mass fluctuations, sigma_8. We find Omega=0.2 (+0.3,-0.1), and sigma_8=1.2 (+0.5,-0.4) (95 %). We show that the existence of even the single most distant cluster at z=0.83, MS1054-03, with its large gravitational lensing mass, high temperature, and large velocity dispersion, is sufficient to establish powerful constraints. High-density, Omega=1 (sigma_8 ~ 0.5-0.6) Gaussian models are ruled out by these data (< 10^{-6} probability); the Omega=1 models predict only ~10^{-5} massive clusters at z > 0.65 (~10^{-3} at z > 0.5) instead of the 1 (3) clusters observed.
Effects of Radiative Diffusion on Thin Flux Tubes in Turbulent Solar-like Convection
Maria A. Weber,Yuhong Fan
Physics , 2015, DOI: 10.1007/s11207-015-0674-3
Abstract: We study the combined effects of convection and radiative diffusion on the evolution of thin magnetic flux tubes in the solar interior. Radiative diffusion is the primary supplier of heat to convective motions in the lower convection zone, and it results in a heat input per unit volume of magnetic flux tubes that has been ignored by many previous thin flux tube studies. We use a thin flux tube model subject to convection taken from a rotating spherical shell of turbulent, solar-like convection as described by Weber, Fan, and Miesch (2011, Astrophys. J., 741, 11; 2013, Solar Phys., 287, 239), now taking into account the influence of radiative heating on flux tubes of large-scale active regions. Our simulations show that flux tubes of less than or equal to 60 kG subject to solar-like convective flows do not anchor in the overshoot region, but rather drift upward due to the increased buoyancy of the flux tube earlier in its evolution as a result of the inclusion of radiative diffusion. Flux tubes of magnetic field strengths ranging from 15 kG to 100 kG have rise times of less than or equal to 0.2 years, and exhibit a Joy's Law tilt-angle trend. Our results suggest that radiative heating is an effective mechanism by which flux tubes can escape from the stably stratified overshoot region, and that flux tubes do not necessarily need to be anchored in the overshoot region to produce emergence properties similar to those of active regions on the Sun.
Thin and Thick Strip Passage Times for Lévy Flights and Lévy Processes
Ross A. Maller,Yuguang Fan
Mathematics , 2015,
Abstract: We review some of the theory relevant to passage times of one-dimensional L\'evy processes out of bounded regions, highlighting results that are useful in physical phenomena modelled by heavy-tailed L\'evy flights. The process is hypothesised to describe the motion of a particle on the line, starting at $0$, and exiting either a fixed interval $[-r, r]$, $r > 0$, or a time-dependent, expanding, set of intervals of the form $[-r t^\kappa, r t^\kappa]$, $r > 0$, $\kappa > 0$. Asymptotic behaviour of the exit time may be as $r \downarrow 0$ or as $r \to \infty$, but particular emphasis is placed herein on "small time" approximations, corresponding to exits from or transmissions through thin strips. Applications occur for example in the transmission of photons through moderately doped thin or thick wafers by means of "photon recycling", and in atmospheric radiation modelling.
Reversible jump Markov chain Monte Carlo
Y Fan,S A Sisson
Statistics , 2010,
Abstract: To appear to MCMC handbook, S. P. Brooks, A. Gelman, G. Jones and X.-L. Meng (eds), Chapman & Hall.
Likelihood-free Markov chain Monte Carlo
S A Sisson,Y Fan
Statistics , 2010,
Abstract: To appear to MCMC handbook, S. P. Brooks, A. Gelman, G. Jones and X.-L. Meng (eds), Chapman & Hall.
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