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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 461347 matches for " A. Dutrey "
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Dynamical Masses of T Tauri Stars and Calibration of PMS Evolution
M. Simon,A. Dutrey,S. Guilloteau
Physics , 2000, DOI: 10.1086/317838
Abstract: We have used the high sensitivity and resolution of the IRAM interferometer to produce sub-arcsecond 12CO 2-1 images of 9 protoplanetary disks surrounding T Tauri stars in the Taurus-Auriga cloud (7 singles and 2 binaries). The images demonstrate the disks are in Keplerian rotation around their central stars. Using the least square fit method described in Guilloteau and Dutrey (1998), we derive the disk properties, in particular its inclination angle and rotation velocity, hence the dynamical mass. Since the disk mass is usually small, this is a direct measurement of the stellar mass. Typically, we reach an internal precision of 10% in the determinations of stellar mass. The over-all accuracy is limited by the uncertainty in the distance to a specific star. In a distance independent way, we compare the derived masses with theoretical tracks of pre-main-sequence evolution. Combined with the mean distance to the Taurus region (140 pc), for stars with mass close to 1 Msun, our results tend to favor the tracks with cooler photospheres (higher masses for a given spectral type). We find that in UZ Tau E the disk and the spectroscopic binary orbit appear to have different inclinations.
A Keplerian disk around the Herbig Ae star HD 34282
V. Pietu,A. Dutrey,C. Kahane
Physics , 2002, DOI: 10.1051/0004-6361:20021551
Abstract: We report new millimeter observations of the circumstellar material surrounding the Herbig Ae A0.5 star HD 34282 performed with the IRAM array in CO J=2-1 and in continuum at 1.3 mm. These observations have revealed the existence of a large Keplerian disk around the star. We have analysed simultaneously the line and continuum emissions to derive the physical properties of both the gas and the dust. The analysis of our observations also shows that the Hipparcos distance to the star is somewhat underestimated ; the actual distance is probably about 400 pc. With this distance the disk around HD 34282 appears more massive and somewhat hotter than the observed disks around less massive T Tauri stars, but shares the general behaviour of passive disks.
The circumstellar disk of HH 30. Searching for signs of disk evolution with multi-wavelength modeling
D. Madlener,S. Wolf,A. Dutrey,S. Guilloteau
Physics , 2012, DOI: 10.1051/0004-6361/201117615
Abstract: Circumstellar disks are characteristic for star formation and vanish during the first few Myr of stellar evolution. During this time planets are believed to form in the dense midplane by growth, sedimentation and aggregation of dust. Indicators of disk evolution, such as holes and gaps, can be traced in the spectral energy distribution (SED) and spatially resolved images. We aim to construct a self-consistent model of HH 30 by fitting all available continuum observations simultaneously. New data sets not available in previous studies, such as high-resolution interferometric imaging with the Plateau de Bure Interferometer (PdBI) at lambda = 1.3 mm and SED measured with IRS on the Spitzer Space Telescope in the mid-infrared, put strong constraints on predictions and are likely to provide new insights into the evolutionary state of this object. A parameter study based on simulated annealing was performed to find unbiased best-fit models for independent observations made in the wavelength domain lambda ~ 1 micron ... 4 mm. The method essentially creates a Markov chain through parameter space by comparing predictions generated by our self-consistent continuum radiation transfer code MC3D with observations. We present models of the edge-on circumstellar disk of HH 30 based on observations from the near-infrared to mm-wavelengths that suggest the presence of an inner depletion zone with about 45 AU radius and a steep decline of mm opacity beyond 140 AU. Our modeling indicates that several modes of dust evolution such as growth, settling, and radial migration are taking place in this object. High-resolution observations of HH 30 at different wavelengths with next-generation observatories such as ALMA and JWST will enable the modeling of inhomogeneous dust properties and significantly expand our understanding of circumstellar disk evolution.
CI observations in the CQ Tau proto-planetary disk: evidence for a very low gas-to-dust ratio ?
E. Chapillon,B. Parise,S. Guilloteau,A. Dutrey,V. Wakelam
Physics , 2010, DOI: 10.1051/0004-6361/201014841
Abstract: Gas and dust dissipation processes of proto-planetary disks are hardly known. Transition disks between Class II (proto-planetary disks) and Class III (debris disks) remain difficult to detect. We investigate the carbon chemistry of the peculiar CQ Tau gas disk. It is likely a transition disk because it exhibits weak CO emission with a relatively strong millimeter continuum, indicating that the disk might be currently dissipating its gas content. We used APEX to observe the two CI lines at 492GHz and 809 GHz in the disk orbiting CQ Tau. We compare the observations to several chemical model predictions. We focus our study on the influence of the stellar UV radiation shape and gas-to-dust ratio. We did not detect the CI lines. However, our upper limits are deep enough to exclude high-CI models. The only available models compatible with our limits imply very low gas-to-dust ratio, of the order of a few, only. These observations strengthen the hypothesis that CQ Tau is likely a transition disk and suggest that gas disappears before dust.
The origin of the HH7-11 outflow
R. Bachiller,F. Gueth,S. Guilloteau,M. Tafalla,A. Dutrey
Physics , 2000,
Abstract: New, high-sensitivity interferometric CO J=2-1 observations of the HH 7-11 outflow show that despite previous doubts, this system is powered by the Class I source SVS 13. The molecular outflow from SVS 13 is formed by a shell with a large opening angle at the base, which is typical of outflows from Class I sources, but it also contains an extremely-high-velocity jet composed of ``molecular bullets'', which is more typical of Class 0 outflows. This suggests that SVS 13 could be a very young Class I, which still keeps some features of the previous evolutionary stage. We briefly discuss the nature of some sources in the SVS 13 vicinity which are emitters of cm-wave continuum, but have no counterpart at mm wavelengths.
A dual-frequency sub-arcsecond study of proto-planetary disks at mm wavelengths: First evidence for radial variations of the dust properties
S. Guilloteau,A. Dutrey,V. Piétu,Y. Boehler
Physics , 2011, DOI: 10.1051/0004-6361/201015209
Abstract: (Abridged) We attempt to characterize the radial distribution of dust in disks around a sample of young stars from an observational point of view, and, when possible, in a model-independent way, by using parametric laws. We used the IRAM PdBI interferometer to provide very high angular resolution (down to 0.4" in some sources) observations of the continuum at 1.3 mm and 3 mm around a sample of T Tauri stars in the Taurus-Auriga region. The sample includes single and multiple systems, with a total of 23 individual disks. We used track-sharing observing mode to minimize the biases. We fitted these data with two kinds of models: a "truncated power law" model and a model presenting an exponential decay at the disk edge ("viscous" model). ect evidence for tidal truncation is found in the multiple systems. The temperature of the mm-emitting dust is constrained in a few systems. Unambiguous evidence for large grains is obtained by resolving out disks with very low values of the dust emissivity index Beta. In most disks that are sufficiently resolved at two different wavelengths, we find a radial dependence of Beta, which appears to increase from low values (as low as 0) at the center to about 1.7 -- 2 at the disk edge. The same behavior could apply to all studied disks. It introduces further ambiguities in interpreting the brightness profile, because the regions with apparent Beta = 0 can also be interpreted as being optically thick when their brightness temperature is high enough. Despite the added uncertainty on the dust absorption coefficient, the characteristic size of the disk appears to increase with a higher estimated star age. These results provide the first direct evidence of the radial dependence of the grain size in proto-planetary disks.
Probing Dust Settling in Proto-planetary Disks with ALMA
Y. Boehler,A. Dutrey,S. Guilloteau,V. Piétu
Physics , 2013, DOI: 10.1093/mnras/stt278
Abstract: Investigating the dynamical evolution of dust grains in proto-planetary disks is a key issue to understand how planets should form. We identify under which conditions dust settling can be constrained by high angular resolution observations at mm wavelengths, and which observational strategies are suited for such studies. Exploring a large range of models, we generate synthetic images of disks with different degrees of dust settling, and simulate high angular resolution (~ 0.05-0.3") ALMA observations of these synthetic disks. The resulting data sets are then analyzed blindly with homogeneous disk models (where dust and gas are totally mixed) and the derived disk parameters are used as tracers of the settling factor. Our dust disks are partially resolved by ALMA and present some specific behaviors on radial and mainly vertical directions, which can be used to quantify the level of settling. We find out that an angular resolution better than or equal to ~ 0.1" (using 2.3 km baselines at 0.8mm) allows us to constrain the dust scale height and flaring index with sufficient precision to unambiguously distinguish between settled and non-settled disks, provided the inclination is close enough to edge-on (i >= 75{\deg}). Ignoring dust settling and assuming hydrostatic equilibrium when analyzing such disks affects the derived dust temperature and the radial dependency of the dust emissivity index. The surface density distribution can also be severely biased at the highest inclinations. However, the derived dust properties remain largely unaffected if the disk scale height is fitted separately. ALMA has the potential to test some of the dust settling mechanisms, but for real disks, deviations from ideal geometry (warps, spiral waves) may provide an ultimate limit on the dust settling detection.
Chemistry in Protoplanetary Disks: the gas-phase CO/H2 ratio and the Carbon reservoir
L. Reboussin,V. Wakelam,S. Guilloteau,F. Hersant,A. Dutrey
Physics , 2015, DOI: 10.1051/0004-6361/201525885
Abstract: The gas mass of protoplanetary disks, and the gas-to-dust ratio, are two key elements driving the evolution of these disks and the formation of planetary system. We explore here to what extent CO (or its isotopologues) can be used as a tracer of gas mass. We use a detailed gas-grain chemical model and study the evolution of the disk composition, starting from a dense pre-stellar core composition. We explore a range of disk temperature profiles, cosmic rays ionization rates, and disk ages for a disk model representative of T Tauri stars. At the high densities that prevail in disks, we find that, due to fast reactions on grain surfaces, CO can be converted to less volatile forms (principally s-CO$_2$, and to a lesser extent s-CH$_4$) instead of being evaporated over a wide range of temperature. The canonical gas-phase abundance of 10$^{-4}$ is only reached above about 30-35 K. The dominant Carbon bearing entity depends on the temperature structure and age of the disk. The chemical evolution of CO is also sensitive to the cosmic rays ionization rate. Larger gas phase CO abundances are found in younger disks. Initial conditions, such as parent cloud age and density, have a limited impact. This study reveals that CO gas-phase abundance is heavily dependent on grain surface processes, which remain very incompletely understood so far. The strong dependence on dust temperature profile makes CO a poor tracer of the gas-phase content of disks.
Chemistry in Disks. V: CN and HCN in proto-planetary disks
E. Chapillon,S. Guilloteau,A. Dutrey,V. Piétu,M. Guélin
Physics , 2011, DOI: 10.1051/0004-6361/201116762
Abstract: The chemistry of proto-planetary disks is thought to be dominated by two major processes: photodissociation near the disk surface, and depletion on dust grains in the disk mid-plane, resulting in a layered structure with molecules located in a warm layer above the disk mid-plane. We attempt here to confront this warm molecular layer model prediction with the distribution of two key molecules for dissociation processes: CN and HCN. Using the IRAM Plateau de Bure interferometer, we obtained high spatial and spectral resolution images of the CN J=2-1 and HCN J=1-0 lines in the disks surrounding the two T-Tauri DM Tau and LkCa 15 and the Herbig Ae MWC 480. Disk properties are derived assuming power law distributions. The hyperfine structure of the observed transitions allows us to constrain the line opacities and excitation temperatures. We compare the observational results with predictions from existing chemical models, and use a simple PDR model (without freeze-out of molecules on grains and surface chemistry) to illustrate dependencies on UV field strength, grain size and gas-to-dust ratio. We also evaluate the impact of Lyman alpha radiation. The temperature ordering follows the trend found from CO lines, with DM Tau being the coldest object and MWC 480 the warmest. Although CN indicates somewhat higher excitation temperatures than HCN, the derived values in the T-Tauri disks are very low (8-10 K). They agree with results obtained from CCH, and are in contradiction with thermal and chemical model predictions. These very low temperatures, as well as geometrical constraints, suggest that substantial amounts of CN and HCN remain in the gas phase close to the disk mid-plane, and that this mid-plane is quite cold. The observed CN/HCN ratio (5-10) is in better agreement with the existence of large grains, and possibly also a substantial contribution of Lyman alpha radiation.
Faint disks around classical T Tauri stars: small but dense enough to form planets?
V. Piétu,S. Guilloteau,E. di Folco,A. Dutrey,Y. Boehler
Physics , 2014, DOI: 10.1051/0004-6361/201322388
Abstract: (abridged) Most Class II sources (of nearby star forming regions) are surrounded by disks with weak millimeter continuum emission. These "faint" disks may hold clues to the disk dissipation mechanism. We attempt to determine the characteristics of such faint disks around classical T Tauri stars, and to explore the link between disk faintness and the proposed disk dispersal mechanisms (accretion, viscous spreading, photo-evaporation, planetary system formation). We performed high-angular resolution (0.3") imaging of a small sample of disks (9 sources) with low 1.3mm continuum flux (mostly <30 mJy) with the IRAM Plateau de Bure interferometer and simultaneously searched for 13CO (or CO) J=2-1 line emission. Using a simple parametric disk model, we determine characteristic sizes of the disks, in dust and gas, and we constrain surface densities in the central 50 AU. All disks are much smaller than the bright disks imaged so far, both in continuum and 13CO lines (5 detections). In continuum, half of the disks are very small, with characteristic radii less than 10AU, but still have high surface density values. Small sizes appear to be the main cause for the low disk luminosity. Direct evidence for grain growth is found for the three disks that are sufficiently resolved. Low continuum opacity is attested in two systems only, but we cannot firmly distinguish between a low gas surface density and a lower dust emissivity resulting from grain growth. We report a tentative discovery of a 20 AU radius cavity in DS Tau, bringing the proportion of transitional disks to a similar value to that of brighter sources, but cavities cannot explain the low mm flux. This study highlights a category of very compact dust disks, still exhibiting high surface densities, which may represent up to 25 % of the whole disk population, but its origin is unclear with the current data alone.
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