Abstract:
The stoichiometry of metabolic networks usually gives rise to a family of conservation laws for the aggregate concentration of specific pools of metabolites, which not only constrain the dynamics of the network, but also provide key insight into a cell's production capabilities. When the conserved quantity identifies with a chemical moiety, extracting all such conservation laws from the stoichiometry amounts to finding all integer solutions to an NP-hard programming problem. Here we propose a novel and efficient computational strategy that combines Monte Carlo, message passing, and relaxation algorithms to compute the complete set of irreducible integer conservation laws of a given stoichiometric matrix, also providing a certificate for correctness and maximality of the solution. The method is deployed for the analysis of the complete set of irreducible integer pools of two large-scale reconstructions of the metabolism of the bacterium Escherichia coli in different growth media. In addition, we uncover a scaling relation that links the size of the irreducible pool basis to the number of metabolites, for which we present an analytical explanation.

Abstract:
We address the problem of spin-resolved scattering through spin-orbit nanostructures in graphene, i.e., regions of inhomogeneous spin-orbit coupling on the nanometer scale. We discuss the phenomenon of spin-double refraction and its consequences on the spin polarization. Specifically, we study the transmission properties of a single and a double interface between a normal region and a region with finite spin-orbit coupling, and analyze the polarization properties of these systems. Moreover, for the case of a single interface, we determine the spectrum of edge states localized at the boundary between the two regions and study their properties.

Abstract:
We derive and analyze the low-energy theory of superconductivity in carbon nanotube ropes. A rope is modelled as an array of metallic nanotubes, taking into account phonon-mediated as well as Coulomb interactions, and arbitrary Cooper pair hopping amplitudes (Josephson couplings) between different tubes. We use a systematic cumulant expansion to construct the Ginzburg-Landau action including quantum fluctuations. The regime of validity is carefully established, and the effect of phase slips is assessed. Quantum phase slips are shown to cause a depression of the critical temperature $T_c$ below the mean-field value, and a temperature-dependent resistance below $T_c$. We compare our theoretical results to recent experimental data of Kasumov {\sl et al.} [Phys. Rev. B {\bf 68}, 214521 (2003)] for the sub-$T_c$ resistance, and find good agreement with only one free fit parameter. Ropes of nanotubes therefore represent superconductors in the one-dimensional few-channel limit.

Abstract:
We derive and analyze the low-energy theory of superconductivity in carbon nanotube ropes. A rope is modelled as an array of ballistic metallic nanotubes, taking into account phonon-mediated plus Coulomb interactions, and Josephson coupling between adjacent tubes. We construct the Ginzburg-Landau action including quantum fluctuations. Quantum phase slips are shown to cause a depression of the critical temperature $T_c$ below the mean-field value, and a temperature-dependent resistance below $T_c$.

Abstract:
We describe a $n$ component abelian Hall fluid as a system of {\it composite bosons} moving in an average null field given by the external magnetic field and by the statistical flux tubes located at the position of the particles. The collective vacuum state, in which the bosons condense, is characterized by a Knizhnik-Zamolodchikov differential equation relative to a $\hat {U}(1)^n$ Wess-Zumino model. In the case of states belonging to Jain's sequences the Knizhnik-Zamolodchikov equation naturally leads to the presence of an $\hat{U}(1)\ot \hat{SU}(n)$ extended algebra. Only the $\hat{U}(1)$ mode is charged while the $\hat{SU}(n)$ modes are neutral, in agreement with recent results obtained in the study of the edge states.

Abstract:
We show that a Coulomb gas Vertex Operator representation of 2D Conformal Field Theory gives a complete description of abelian Hall fluids: as an euclidean theory in two space dimensions leads to the construction of the ground state wave function for planar and toroidal geometry and characterizes the spectrum of low energy excitations; as a $1+1$ Minkowski theory gives the corresponding dynamics of the edge states. The difference between a generic Hall fluid and states of the Jain's sequences is emphasized and the presence, in the latter case, of of an $\hat {U}(1)\otimes \hat {SU}(n)$ extended algebra and the consequent propagation on the edges of a single charged mode and $n-1$ neutral modes is discussed.

Abstract:
We investigate a toy model of inductive interacting agents aiming to forecast a continuous, exogenous random variable E. Private information on E is spread heterogeneously across agents. Herding turns out to be the preferred forecasting mechanism when heterogeneity is maximal. However in such conditions aggregating information efficiently is hard even in the presence of learning, as the herding ratio rises significantly above the efficient-market expectation of 1 and remarkably close to the empirically observed values. We also study how different parameters (interaction range, learning rate, cost of information and score memory) may affect this scenario and improve efficiency in the hard phase.

Abstract:
We derive the effective low-energy theory for interacting electrons in metallic single-wall carbon nanotubes taking into account acoustic phonon exchange within a continuum elastic description. In many cases, the nanotube can be described as a standard Luttinger liquid with possibly attractive interactions. We predict surprisingly strong attractive interactions for thin nanotubes. Once the tube radius reaches a critical value $R_0 \approx 3.6\pm 1.4$ \AA, the Wentzel-Bardeen singularity is approached, accompanied by strong superconducting fluctuations. The surprisingly large $R_0$ indicates that this singularity could be reached experimentally. We also discuss the conditions for a Peierls transition due to acoustic phonons.

Abstract:
We study the integrable and supersymmetric massive $\hat\phi_{(1,3)}$ deformation of the tricritical Ising model in the presence of a boundary. We use constraints from supersymmetry in order to compute the exact boundary $S$-matrices, which turn out to depend explicitly on the topological charge of the supersymmetry algebra. We also solve the general boundary Yang-Baxter equation and show that in appropriate limits the general reflection matrices go over the supersymmetry preserving solutions. Finally, we briefly discuss the possible connection between our reflection matrices and boundary perturbations within the framework of perturbed boundary conformal field theory.

Abstract:
We study the scattering theory for the Gross-Neveu model on the half-line. We find the reflection matrices for the elementary fermions, and by fusion we compute the ones for the two-particle bound-states, showing that they satisfy non-trivial bootstrap consistency conditions. We also compute more general reflection matrices for the Gross-Neveu model and the nonlinear sigma model, and argue that they correspond to the integrable boundary conditions we identified in our previous paper hep-th/9809178.