Abstract:
We study the interaction between two magnetic adatom impurities in graphene using the Anderson model. The two-impurity Anderson Hamiltonian is solved numerically by using the quantum Monte Carlo technique. We find that the inter-impurity spin susceptibility is strongly enhanced at low temperatures, significantly diverging from the well-known Ruderman-Kittel-Kasuya-Yoshida (RKKY) result which decays as $R^{-3}$.

Abstract:
We present results of tight binding calculations demonstrating existence of degenerate electronic shells of Dirac Fermions in narrow, charge neutral graphene quantum rings. We predict removal of degeneracy with finite magnetic field. We show, using a combination of tight binding and configuration interaction methods, that by filling a graphene ring with additional electrons this carbon based structure with half-filled shell acquires a finite magnetic moment.

Abstract:
We present a tight-binding theory of triangular graphene quantum dots (TGQD) with zigzag edge and broken sublattice symmetry in external magnetic field. The lateral size quantization opens an energy gap and broken sublattice symmetry results in a shell of degenerate states at the Fermi level. We derive a semi-analytical form for zero-energy states in a magnetic field and show that the shell remains degenerate in a magnetic field, in analogy to the 0th Landau level of bulk graphene. The magnetic field closes the energy gap and leads to the crossing of valence and conduction states with the zero-energy states, modulating the degeneracy of the shell. The closing of the gap with increasing magnetic field is present in all graphene quantum dot structures investigated irrespective of shape and edge termination.

Abstract:
We present a theory of excitonic processes in gate controlled graphene quantum dots. The dependence of the energy gap on shape, size and edge for graphene quantum dots with up to a million atoms is predicted. Using a combination of tight-binding, Hartree-Fock and configuration interaction methods, we show that triangular graphene quantum dots with zigzag edges exhibit optical transitions simultaneously in the THz, visible and UV spectral ranges, determined by strong electron-electron and excitonic interactions. The relationship between optical properties and finite magnetic moment and charge density controlled by an external gate is predicted.

Abstract:
We present theoretical results based on mean-field and exact many-body approaches showing that in bilayer triangular graphene quantum dots with zigzag edges the magnetism can be controlled by an external vertical electric-field. We demonstrate that without electric field the spins of the two layers of the quantum dot interact ferromagnetically. At a critical value of the electric-field, the total spin of the bilayer structure can be turned off or reduced to a single localized spin, a qubit isolated from contacts and free from interaction with nuclear spins.

Abstract:
We present a theory of electronic properties of gated triangular graphene quantum dots with zigzag edges as a function of size and carrier density. We focus on electronic correlations, spin and geometrical effects using a combination of atomistic tight-binding, Hartree-Fock and configuration interaction methods (TB+HF+CI) including long range Coulomb interactions. The single particle energy spectrum of triangular dots with zigzag edges exhibits a degenerate shell at the Fermi level with a degeneracy N_{edge} proportional to the edge size. We determine the effect of the electron-electron interactions on the ground state, the total spin and the excitation spectrum as a function of a shell filling and the degeneracy of the shell using TB+HF+CI for N_{edge} < 12 and approximate CI method for N_{edge}\geq 12. For a half-filled neutral shell we find spin polarized ground state for structures up to N=500 atoms in agreement with previous {\it ab initio} and mean-field calculations, and in agreement with Lieb's theorem for a Hubbard model on a bipartite lattice. Adding a single electron leads to the complete spin depolarization for N_{edge}\leq 9. For larger structures, the spin depolarization is shown to occur at different filling factors. Away from half-fillings excess electrons(holes) are shown to form Wigner-like spin polarized triangular molecules corresponding to large gaps in the excitation spectrum. The validity of conclusions is assessed by a comparison of results obtained from different levels of approximations. While for the charge neutral system all methods give qualitatively similar results, away from the charge neutrality an inclusion of all Coulomb scattering terms is necessary to produce results presented here.

Abstract:
We argue that Coulomb blockade phenomena are a useful probe of the cross-over to strong correlation in quantum dots. Through calculations at low density using variational and diffusion quantum Monte Carlo (up to r_s ~ 55), we find that the addition energy shows a clear progression from features associated with shell structure to those caused by commensurability of a Wigner crystal. This cross-over (which occurs near r_s ~ 20 for spin-polarized electrons) is, then, a signature of interaction-driven localization. As the addition energy is directly measurable in Coulomb blockade conductance experiments, this provides a direct probe of localization in the low density electron gas.

Abstract:
When an electron is confined to a triangular atomic thick layer of graphene [1-5] with zig-zag edges, its energy spectrum collapses to a shell of degenerate states at the Fermi level (Dirac point) [6-9]. The degeneracy is proportional to the edge size and can be made macroscopic. This opens up the possibility to design a strongly correlated electronic system as a function of fractional filling of the zero-energy shell, in analogy to the fractional quantum Hall effect in a quasi-two-dimensional electron gas[10], but without the need for a high magnetic field. In this work we show that electronic correlations, beyond the Hubbard model[6,7] and mean-field density functional theory (DFT) [7,8] play a crucial role in determining the nature of the ground state and the excitation spectrum of triangular graphene quantum dots as a function of dot size and filling fraction of the shell of zero-energy states. The interactions are treated by a combination of DFT, tight-binding, Hartree-Fock and configuration interaction methods (TB-HF-CI) and include all scattering and exchange terms within second nearest neighbors as well as interaction with metallic gate. We show that a half filled charge neutral shell leads to full spin polarization of the island but this magnetic moment is completely destroyed by the addition of a single electron, in analogy to the effect of skyrmions on the quantum Hall ferromagnet [11-14] and spin depolarization in electrostatically defined semiconductor quantum dots[15-18]. The depolarization of the ground state is predicted to result in blocking of current through a graphene quantum dot due to spin blockade (SB) [18].

Abstract:
We study the development of electron-electron correlations in circular quantum dots as the density is decreased. We consider a wide range of both electron number, N<=20, and electron gas parameter, r_s<18, using the diffusion quantum Monte Carlo technique. Features associated with correlation appear to develop very differently in quantum dots than in bulk. The main reason is that translational symmetry is necessarily broken in a dot, leading to density modulation and inhomogeneity. Electron-electron interactions act to enhance this modulation ultimately leading to localization. This process appears to be completely smooth and occurs over a wide range of density. Thus there is a broad regime of ``incipient'' Wigner crystallization in these quantum dots. Our specific conclusions are: (i) The density develops sharp rings while the pair density shows both radial and angular inhomogeneity. (ii) The spin of the ground state is consistent with Hund's (first) rule throughout our entire range of r_s for all 4

Abstract:
In relativistic heavy-ion collisions, the strong Lorentz-contracted electromagnetic fields are capable of producing copious numbers of lepton pairs through the two-photon mechanism. Monte Carlo techniques have been developed that allow the exact calculation of production by this mechanism when a semi-classical approximation is made to the motion of the two ions. Here, we develop a hybrid Monte Carlo technique that enables us to calculate the impact parameter dependence of the two-photon mechanism for lepton-pair production, and by using this result, we obtain the probability distribution for multiple-pair production as a function of impact parameter. Computations are performed for S$+$Au and Pb$+$Pb systems at 200 A GeV and 160 A GeV, respectively. We also compare our results with the equivalent photon approximation and elucidate the differences.