Abstract:
We study transport through a ferromagnetic single-electron transistor. The resistance is represented as a path integral, so that systems where the tunnel resistances are smaller than the quantum resistance can be investigated. Beyond the low order sequential tunneling and co-tunneling regimes, a large magnetoresistance ratio at sufficiently low temperatures is found. In the opposite limit, when the thermal energy is larger than the charging energy, the magnetoresistance ratio is only slightly enhanced.

Abstract:
We study light scattering from a periodically modulated two dimensional electron gas in a perpendicular magnetic field. If a subband is partially filled, the imaginary part of the dielectric function as a function of frequency contains additional discontinuities to the case of completely filled subbands. The positions of the discontinuities may be determined from the partial filling factor and the height of the discontinuity can be directly related to the modulation potential. The light scattering cross section contains a new peak which is absent for integer filling.

Abstract:
Pure spin currents can be injected and detected in conductors via ferromagnetic contacts. We consider the case when the conductors become superconducting. A DC pure spin current flowing in one superconducting wire towards another superconductor via a ferromagnet contact induces AC voltage oscillations caused by Josephson tunneling of condensate electrons. Quasiparticles simultaneously counterflow resulting in zero total electric current through the contact. The Josephson oscillations can be accompanied by Carlson-Goldman collective modes leading to a resonance in the voltage oscillation amplitude.

Abstract:
We consider a single-electron transistor in the form of a ferromagnetic dot in contact with normal-metal and pinned ferromagnetic leads. Microwave-driven precession by the dot induces a pumped electric current. In open circuits, this pumping produces a measurable reverse bias voltage, which can be enhanced and made highly nonlinear by Coulomb blockade in the dot. The dependence of this bias on the power and spectrum of microwave irradiation may be utilized to develop nanoscale microwave detectors analogous to single-electron transistor-based electrostatic sensors and nanoelectromechanical devices.

Abstract:
We show that injecting nonequilibrium spins into the superconducting leads strongly enhances the stationary Josephson current through a superconductor-ferromagnet-superconductor junction. The resulting long-range super-current through a ferromagnet is carried by triplet Cooper pairs that are formed in s-wave superconductors by the combined effects of spin injection and exchange interaction. We quantify the exchange interaction in terms of Landau Fermi-liquid factors. The magnitude and direction of the long-range Josephson current can be manipulated by varying the angles of the injected polarizations with respect to the magnetization in the ferromagnet.

Abstract:
We study the effects of nonlinear dynamics and damping by phonons on a system of interacting electronically pumped magnons in a ferromagnet. The nonlinear effects are crucial for constructing the dynamic phase diagram, which describes how "swasing" and Bose-Einstein condensation emerge out of the quasiequilibrated thermal cloud of magnons. We analyze the system in the presence of magnon damping and interactions, demonstrating the continuous onset of stable condensates as well as hysteretic transitions.

Abstract:
Spintronics is the science and technology of electric control over spin currents in solid-state-based devices. Recent advances have demonstrated a coupling between electronic spin currents in non-magnetic metals and magnons in magnetic insulators. The coupling is due to spin transfer and spin pumping at interfaces between the normal metals and magnetic insulators. In this Chapter, we review these developments and the prospects they raise for electric control of quasi-equilibrium magnon Bose-Einstein condensates and spin superfluidity.

Abstract:
We investigate how spins relax in intrinsic graphene. The spin-orbit coupling arises from the band structure and is enhanced by ripples. The orbital motion is influenced by scattering centers and ripple-induced gauge fields. Spin relaxation due to Elliot-Yafet and Dyakonov-Perel mechanisms and gauge fields in combination with spin-orbit coupling are discussed. In intrinsic graphene, the Dyakonov-Perel mechanism and spin flip due to gauge fields dominate and the spin-flip relaxation time is inversely proportional to the elastic scattering time. The spin relaxation anisotropy depends on an intricate competition between these mechanisms. Experimental consequences are discussed.

Abstract:
We consider Rashba spin-orbit effects on spin transport driven by an electric field in semiconductor quantum wells. We derive spin diffusion equations that are valid when the mean free path and the Rashba spin-orbit interaction vary on length scales larger than the mean free path in the weak spin-orbit coupling limit. From these general diffusion equations, we derive boundary conditions between regions of different spin-orbit couplings. We show that spin injection is feasible when the electric field is perpendicular to the boundary between two regions. When the electric field is parallel to the boundary, spin injection only occurs when the mean free path changes within the boundary, in agreement with the recent work by Tserkovnyak et al. [cond-mat/0610190].