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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 462010 matches for " A. Ariga "
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Fast 4$π$ track reconstruction in nuclear emulsion detectors based on GPU technology
A. Ariga,T. Ariga
Physics , 2013, DOI: 10.1088/1748-0221/9/04/P04002
Abstract: Fast 4$\pi$ solid angle particle track recognition has been a challenge in particle physics for a long time, especially in using nuclear emulsion detectors. The recent advances in computing technology opened the way for its realization. A fast 4$\pi$ solid angle particle track reconstruction based on GPU technology combined with a multithread programming is reported here with a detailed comparison between GPU-based and CPU-based programming. A 60 times faster processing of 3D emulsion detector data, corresponding to processing of 15 cm$^2$ emulsion surface scanned per hour, has been achieved by GPUs with an excellent tracking performance.
Emulsion sheet doublets as interface trackers for the OPERA experiment
A. Ariga,for the OPERA collaboration
Physics , 2008, DOI: 10.1088/1748-0221/3/07/P07005
Abstract: New methods for efficient and unambiguous interconnection between electronic counters and target units based on nuclear photographic emulsion films have been developed. The application to the OPERA experiment, that aims at detecting oscillations between mu neutrino and tau neutrino in the CNGS neutrino beam, is reported in this paper. In order to reduce background due to latent tracks collected before installation in the detector, on-site large-scale treatments of the emulsions ("refreshing") have been applied. Changeable Sheet (CSd) packages, each made of a doublet of emulsion films, have been designed, assembled and coupled to the OPERA target units ("ECC bricks"). A device has been built to print X-ray spots for accurate interconnection both within the CSd and between the CSd and the related ECC brick. Sample emulsion films have been extensively scanned with state-of-the-art automated optical microscopes. Efficient track-matching and powerful background rejection have been achieved in tests with electronically tagged penetrating muons. Further improvement of in-doublet film alignment was obtained by matching the pattern of low-energy electron tracks. The commissioning of the overall OPERA alignment procedure is in progress.
Extra-large crystal emulsion detectors towards future large-scale experiments
T. Ariga,A. Ariga,K. Kuwabara,K. Morishima,M. Moto,A. Nishio,P. Scampoli,M. Vladymyrov
Physics , 2015,
Abstract: Photographic emulsion is a particle tracking device which features the best spatial resolution among particle detectors. Some applications of such a detector, for example the imaging of large object with cosmic-ray muons (muon radiography) or the detection of neutrinos, require large-scale detectors. Therefore, a huge amount of detector area has to be analyzed by means of automated optical microscopes. An improvement of the readout speed is then a crucial point to make these applications possible and one way to pursue it is the availability of new type of photographic emulsions featuring a bigger silver crystal size. This would allow a lower magnification for the microscopes, a consequent larger field of view and then a faster data analysis. In this framework, we developed new types of emulsion detectors with a crystal size of 600-1000 nm, namely 3-5 times larger than the conventional ones. This would allow a 25 times faster data readout. These new photographic emulsions have shown a sufficient sensitivity and a good signal to noise ratio for particle track detection. This key development opens the way to future large-scale applications of the technology, e.g. 3D imaging of glacier bedrocks or future neutrino experiments.
Impact of HIV and AIDS on household food and nutrition security in Suba District, Kenya
CP Musita, ES Ariga, DK Kaseje, A Otieno
African Journal of Food, Agriculture, Nutrition and Development , 2009,
Abstract: The impact of HIV/AIDS on household food and nutrition security in Suba district was studied in a quasi longitudinal study. Households with People Living with HIV/AIDS (Index- 25%) and three surrounding households (control- 75%) were considered for the study. Data were collected on demographic characteristics of the households, land ownership, cultivated land by crop, crop yield, livestock kept by category, diet composition, frequency of hunger, experience of weight loss in the households and expenditure on food. Categorization among the index households was based on disease progression stages: Stage 1(with no symptoms), Stage 2 (Symptomatic-(CD4>200, CD4 <200) and on antiretroviral, Stage 3( bedridden patients), and Stage 4 (households with HIV related deaths). Results showed households with bedridden members had the highest land ownership of more than 3 acres (62 per cent), while those with CD4 < 200 and on ARVs had the least land (28 per cent). The proportion of index households with uncultivated land was 3 times higher than control households. Index households significantly planted less maize but equally planted beans, sorghum/millet, cassava, groundnuts and tomatoes, whose yields were comparatively less. Control (non index) households kept more goats, sheep, cattle and chicken than index households. Households that had suffered HIV related deaths had lower overall rate of expenditure on food due to reduction in household income. Death increased household consumption of home produced food partially making up for the lost income. The incidence of hunger was found to be slightly higher among the controls with chronically ill (65 per cent) than among index households (63 per cent). Eating of non balanced food and loss of weight in the last one month was significantly higher in index than non index households. The mean expenditure on food was also less in index (8.5 US $) than non index households (9.2 US $). It is imperative, therefore, that appropriate intervention measures be put in place to combat food and nutrition insecurity among People Living with HIV/AIDS and their families in order for them to benefit from the life prolonging effects of ARVs.
Edentulousness, Denture Wear and Denture Needs of the Elderly in Rural South India
P Ariga,A Bridgitte,V Rangarajan,J M Philip
Iranian Journal of Public Health , 2012,
Abstract: Background: The objectives of this study were to evaluate the prevalence of edentulousness, patients perception on dietary changes resulting from tooth loss and to identify the disparity between actual and patient perceived need to replace missing teeth in an elderly rural population in south India.Methods: A cross sectional study using the systematic cluster sampling method was used to select the study sample of 150 elderly men and women. Data were collected using questionnaires and oral examination. The data were statistically analyzed using chi square test and pearson correlation.Results: 15.6% of the rural elderly were completely edentulous and 54.7% were partially edentulous. Observed differences in distribution between the sampled elderly age groups were found to be statistically significant. Although 70.3% of the evaluated elderly actually required prosthodontic treatment, only 14.4% perceived the need to replace missing teeth. A small percentage of the elderly (18%) perceived a severe change in their diets due to tooth loss. Thirty three percent of them perceived a moderate change and 28% felt that there were no dietary changes because of tooth loss.Conclusions: It is essential to identify feasible strategies to provide primary dental health education and treatment to all rural elderly in the future. We suggest community dental health services as a general health need of the elderly rather than a special health need of the community.
The efficacy of Ahmed glaucoma valve drainage devices in cases of adult refractive glaucoma in Indian eyes
Murali Ariga
Indian Journal of Ophthalmology , 2010,
Abstract:
A new application of emulsions to measure the gravitational force on antihydrogen
C. Amsler,A. Ariga,T. Ariga,S. Braccini,C. Canali,A. Ereditato,J. Kawada,M. Kimura,I. Kreslo,C. Pistillo,P. Scampoli,J. W. Storey
Physics , 2012, DOI: 10.1088/1748-0221/8/02/P02015
Abstract: We propose to build and operate a detector based on the emulsion film technology for the measurement of the gravitational acceleration on antimatter, to be performed by the AEgIS experiment (AD6) at CERN. The goal of AEgIS is to test the weak equivalence principle with a precision of 1% on the gravitational acceleration g by measuring the vertical position of the anni- hilation vertex of antihydrogen atoms after their free fall in a horizontal vacuum pipe. With the emulsion technology developed at the University of Bern we propose to improve the performance of AEgIS by exploiting the superior position resolution of emulsion films over other particle de- tectors. The idea is to use a new type of emulsion films, especially developed for applications in vacuum, to yield a spatial resolution of the order of one micron in the measurement of the sag of the antihydrogen atoms in the gravitational field. This is an order of magnitude better than what was planned in the original AEgIS proposal.
Automatic track recognition for large-angle minimum ionizing particles in nuclear emulsions
T. Fukuda,S. Fukunaga,H. Ishida,T. Matsumoto,T. Matsuo,S. Mikado,S. Nishimura,S. Ogawa,H. Shibuya,J. Sudou,A. Ariga,S. Tufanli
Physics , 2014, DOI: 10.1088/1748-0221/9/12/P12017
Abstract: We previously developed an automatic track scanning system which enables the detection of large-angle nuclear fragments in the nuclear emulsion films of the OPERA experiment. As a next step, we have investigated this system's track recognition capability for large-angle minimum ionizing particles $(1.0 \leq |tan \theta| \leq 3.5)$. This paper shows that, for such tracks, the system has a detection efficiency of 95$\%$ or higher and reports the achieved angular accuracy of the automatically recognized tracks. This technology is of general purpose and will likely contribute not only to various analyses in the OPERA experiment, but also to future experiments, e.g. on low-energy neutrino and hadron interactions, or to future research on cosmic rays using nuclear emulsions carried by balloons.
The Pathological Roles of Ganglioside Metabolism in Alzheimer's Disease: Effects of Gangliosides on Neurogenesis
Toshio Ariga,Chandramohan Wakade,Robert K. Yu
International Journal of Alzheimer's Disease , 2011, DOI: 10.4061/2011/193618
Abstract: Conversion of the soluble, nontoxic amyloid β-protein (Aβ) into an aggregated, toxic form rich in β-sheets is a key step in the onset of Alzheimer's disease (AD). It has been suggested that Aβ induces changes in neuronal membrane fluidity as a result of its interactions with membrane components such as cholesterol, phospholipids, and gangliosides. Gangliosides are known to bind Aβ. A complex of GM1 and Aβ, termed “GAβ”, has been identified in AD brains. Abnormal ganglioside metabolism also may occur in AD brains. We have reported an increase of Chol-1α antigens, GQ1bα and GT1aα, in the brain of transgenic mouse AD model. GQ1bα and GT1aα exhibit high affinities to Aβs. The presence of Chol-1α gangliosides represents evidence for genesis of cholinergic neurons in AD brains. We evaluated the effects of GM1 and Aβ1–40 on mouse neuroepithelial cells. Treatment of these cells simultaneously with GM1 and Aβ1–40 caused a significant reduction of cell number, suggesting that Aβ1–40 and GM1 cooperatively exert a cytotoxic effect on neuroepithelial cells. An understanding of the mechanism on the interaction of GM1 and Aβs in AD may contribute to the development of new neuroregenerative therapies for this disorder.
Developments in Molecular Recognition and Sensing at Interfaces
Katsuhiko Ariga,Jonathan P. Hill,Hiroshi Endo
International Journal of Molecular Sciences , 2007, DOI: 10.3390/i8080864
Abstract: In biological systems, molecular recognition events occur mostly withininterfacial environments such as at membrane surfaces, enzyme reaction sites, or at theinterior of the DNA double helix. Investigation of molecular recognition at model interfacesprovides great insights into biological phenomena. Molecular recognition at interfaces notonly has relevance to biological systems but is also important for modern applications suchas high sensitivity sensors. Selective binding of guest molecules in solution to hostmolecules located at solid surfaces is crucial for electronic or photonic detection of analytesubstances. In response to these demands, molecular recognition at interfaces has beeninvestigated extensively during the past two decades using Langmuir monolayers, self-assembled monolayers, and lipid assemblies as recognition media. In this review, advancesof molecular recognition at interfaces are briefly summarized.
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