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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 462143 matches for " A. Abubakar "
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Effect of Tillage Operations on Soil Moisture Contents in the Southern Guinea Savanna Ecological Zone of Nigeria  [PDF]
R. M. Olanrewaju, A. S. Abubakar
Journal of Water Resource and Protection (JWARP) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/jwarp.2015.73015
Abstract: An experimental farm plot was set up at the National Centre for Agricultural Mechanization (NCAM), kilometer 12 Ilorin-Idofian Road to investigate the effect of various agronomic operations (mound, ridge and plough tillage) on soil moisture content of varying depth intervals of 0 - 15 cm, 15 - 30 cm, 30 - 45 cm and 45 - 60 cm respectively. The experiment was conducted between year 2007 and 2009. Samples were taken on weekly basis from various depths using hand screw auger. The percentage moisture was determined by oven drying oil sample to a constant weight at the temperature of 105°C. The difference between the initial weight and weight after oven drying was calculated and the percentage determined. Weekly data generated were grouped on monthly basis and the means calculated. Seasonal values were also calculated. ANOVA and the Post Hoc multiple comparison were employed to investigate variations in soil moisture content between tillage systems and within the four soil depths. The result showed mound tillage to be the driest and ridge was then wettest of all the tillage system considered. The difference between varying intervals of seach tillage became more pronounced between depth intervals of 0 - 15 cm and 15 - 30 cm. Generally, the result of ANOVA indicates seasonal variation in soil moisture between the three tillage methods at all depths considered. Again the result of the Pos Hoc multiple comparison shows that variation in soil moisture content between the 3 tillage systems in wet and in dry season in not significant because the p value > 0.05. Suggestions were made on the way forward towards achieving a self sufficient food production status.
Replacement value of cassava peels for maize in the diets of broiler finisher chickens
A Abubakar, PE Ohiaege
Sokoto Journal of Veterinary Sciences , 2011,
Abstract: A study was conducted to investigate the effects of replacing maize (MZ) with cassava peels (CSP) on the performance characteristics of broiler finisher. Five diets were formulated where MZ was replaced with CSP. The diets were diet 1 (100% MZ : 0% CSP), diet 2 (75% MZ : 25% CSP), diet 3 (50% MZ : 50% CSP) diet 4 (25% MZ : 75% CSP) and diet 5 (0% MZ : 100% CSP). Diet 1 served as control treatment. A total of 150 birds were used for the experiment. Thirty birds were assigned to each treatment and each treatment replicated three times with ten birds per replicate. The birds ( arbor acre strain) were fed ad libitum for 28 days. Data on feed consumption, daily weight gain, feed conversion ratio, nutrient retention, water intake and cost benefit ratio were recorded. Results showed that average feed intake (AFI) and body weight gain (BWG) were significantly higher (P<0.05) for birds fed diet 3. Feed conversion rat io (FCR), nutrient retention and cost of feed consumed/bird decreased as CSP level increased. Water intake showed no significant difference (P>0.05) among birds for all treatments. The cost per kilogram live weight gain was lower (P<0.5) for birds fed diet 3. Cost-benefit ratio showed a reduction of 20.6% in the cost of production of birds fed diet 3 over that of control group. Average mortality of 6.67 % was recorded for birds fed diets 1, 3 and 5. It was concluded that CSP can replace MZ without any adverse effects on the performance characteristics of finisher broilers.
Is Islam Compatible with Democracy
Carmen A. Abubakar
Kasarinlan : Philippine Journal of Third World Studies , 1996,
Abstract: After the transition to democracy of socialist states in Eastern Europe and other authoritarian states in Asia and Latin America, which captured worldwide attention, the lenses now shift to Muslim states. Perceived as inherently authoritarian, Muslim societies invite criticism from the West as being incapable with democracy. In turn, the Muslims, though recognizing the precepts of democracy, question the validity of Western orthodoxy by challenging the exacting, secular model of democracy. They argue that the term “democracy” has been arbitrarily, as authoritarian and socialist states alike appropriate it their own designs. Moreover, they of the view that there is as yet no universally accepted and encompassing definition of democracy. In the final analysis, if the leaders, the people, and ultimately the state remain true to Islamic ideal, democracy would most likely have the same resonance in Muslim societies as elsewhere in the world.
SPCPD and Economic Development in SZOPAD: High Expectations, Low Output
Carmen A. Abubakar
Kasarinlan : Philippine Journal of Third World Studies , 2000,
Abstract: The Peace Agreement between the Philippine government and the Moro National Liberation Front (MNLF) signed in 1996 after the four years of negotiations under then President Fidel V. Ramos, was met with much publicity and opposition from, certain sectors of the Mindanao population. Implementing its promise of development was also not spared from criticism. But the weakness may be inherent to the terms of the agreement. For one, the powers and function of the Southern Philippines Council for Peace and Development (SPCPD) and the Consultative Assembly (CA) as mechanisms for the implementation of the Peace Agreement were limited by law. The SPCPD was not mandated to implement development projects but to coordinate and monitor projects being undertaken by line agencies that were reluctant to cooperate and credit their projects as part of the peace project. The CA was equally toothless as a forum to discuss and air problems in the SZOPAD areas. Budgetary and time constraints likewise hampered the efforts of the SPCPD and CA. Without sufficient funding support from the national government the project had to rely on supplementary donations from international organizations for the intensive development of SZOPAD areas. Three years were clearly not enough to turn Mindanao into an economic miracle or its leaders into development managers. The entry of government officials whose commitment to the Peace Agreement was not strong did not improve the situation either. However, the unrealized dreams of development cannot negate one accomplishment of the government - a moment of peace between two longtime enemies. The landmark peace treaty did bring peace, albeit, briefly to the war-torn region of Mindanao.
Agrochemical Concentration Level in Zaria Dam Reservoir and Ground Waters in the Environs  [PDF]
J. A. Tanko, E. A. Oluwadamisi, I. Abubakar
Journal of Environmental Protection (JEP) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/jep.2012.32028
Abstract: This study examines the effect of agrochemical used for faming in the Galma Dam area on the quality of water in the reservoir and well water around the reservoir. Nine sampling points upstream of the Galma Dam were randomly se- lected for the study. Also, six hand dug wells in use by adjacent communities were identified for ground water samples. The study covered the period July to September 2011. All measurements were in accordance with the Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater. The parameters measured and their mean concentrations from the reser- voir are in the order of: Chlorides (0.600 - 0.900 mg/l); Nitrates (0.009 - 0.019 mg/l); Bicarbonates; 0.444 - 1.900 mg/l); Total Phosphates (0.173 - 3.077 mg/l); Sulphates (0.617 - 3.587 mg/l); and pH (6.4 - 7.5). For the well water samples, the results ranged from 1.58 - 3.10 mg/l; 0.14 - 0.03 mg/l; 0.60 - 2.73 mg/l; 0.08 - 1.89 mg/l; 0.33 - 2.66 mg/l and 6.05 - 7.0 respectively in the order previously listed. The results were statistically analyzed using ANOVA at 95% confidence level. Chlorides showed no significant variation between sampling points but significant variation with dates of sam- pling for surface and well waters. Nitrates variations with both sampling points and dates of sampling were insignificant. Bicarbonates variations with sampling points and dates of sampling were highly significant. Total Phosphates and Sul- phates variations with sampling points and dates of sampling were insignificant and significant respectively. pH values variations with sampling points and dates of sampling were insignificant and highly significant respectively. Generally, the mean concentrations are within the WHO maximum limits of the parameters in drinking water and recommenda- tions were made regarding the use of agrochemicals for farming in the area.
Vacuum Delivery in a Tertiary Institution, in Northern Nigeria: A 5-Year Review  [PDF]
I. A. Yakasai, I. S. Abubakar, E. M. Yunus
Open Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology (OJOG) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/ojog.2015.54031

Background: There is a progressive shift away from the use of forceps in favour of the vacuum extractor as the instrument of choice for operative vaginal deliveries. The overall objective of this is to improve safe motherhood by reducing the contribution of second stage of labour complications to maternal mortality and morbidity. Objective: This study was carried out to determine the incidence, indications, outcome and complications of Ventouse delivery in Aminu Kano Teaching Hospital, Kano, Nigeria. Materials and Methods: This was a retrospective study carried out at the Aminu Kano Teaching Hospital. The case notes of all parturients who had vacuum deliveries in the hospital within January 2008 to December 2012 were retrieved from the statistics unit of the hospital and analysed using SPSS. Results: 22,680 patients delivered in the hospital over this 5-year period. Ventouse was used on 210 occasions giving an incidence rate of 0.9%. One hundred and eighty (85.7%) had successful vacuum delivery. The failed extractions (14.3%) were delivered by caesarean sections. The mean age of the patients was 29.4 years. The mean parity was 2.2. Ninety (42.9%) were primipara while 120 (57.1%) were multipara. The commonest indication for the vacuum delivery was prolonged second stage of labour in 45.2% of cases. The commonest maternal complication was primary postpartum haemorrhage (9.5%). Foetal complication occurred in about 31% of vacuum deliveries, the commonest (18.1%), being cephalhaematoma. Conclusion: The incidence rate of vacuum delivery is low. Thus, active training in the art of vacuum assisted vaginal delivery is clearly needed during residency.

Akinola A. Adeniyi,Abubakar Mohammed
Academic Research International , 2012,
Abstract: High-power, low weight and ease of fabrication are the key factors the young engineers consider when it comes to their participation in the annual Shell Eco-marathon competition. The competition encourages young engineers to come up with innovative vehicles that make extremely high mileage on a gallon of fuel. The competition allows for a mixed mode driving. The drivers can switch off the engines once a good acceleration has been reached and is enough to coast the vehicle. This can be repeatedly done until the race-circuit is completed. Many of the teams adapt existing engines and build aerodynamic bodies over the engine but others also want to design the engine from the scratch. In this paper, we present a simple design for 40cc engine and introduce a novel concept for an engine without an oil pump specifically suitable for this application. An overhang single cylinder IC engine with a crankshaft length 150mm with 32mm stroke and 40mm bore has been design for the Shell Eco-marathon race.
Abubakar Abubakar
Bumi Lestari , 2010,
Abstract: The aims of this research are (a) to design scenario of strategy on management development of Gili Sulat ocean conservation zone, which are integrated and sustainable (b) to predict economic, social, and ecology impacts on sustainable management of Gili Sulat ocean conservation zone. The research has been conducted in Gili Sulat ocean conservation zone, East Lombok by using survey, observation, and stakeholdersa€ participatory methods. The collected data have been analyzed by using laboratory and trade-off analysis. The result indicates that : (1) The scenario of management development of sustainable Gili Sulat ocean conservation zone is C scenario (75 % from potential useful zone) (2) The estimation of sustainable economic impacts are on Gross Domestic Regional Product (GDRP), total production, income, and export value as follows Rp. 840,360,768; 81,528 kg; Rp. 416, 471, 684; and US $ 94,125. (3) The estimation of sustainable social impact are on workforce, i.e. 10,620 men days and informal sector development with score 41. (4) The estimation of sustainable ecology impact are on BOD (biological oxygen demand), Nitrogen (NO3), Phosphor (PO4), coral reef quality, and mangrove forest quality as follows: 0.560 ppm; 0.028 ppm; 2.946 ppm; score 29; and score 33.
Comparison of Contraceptive Methods Chosen by Breastfeeding, and Non-Breastfeeding, Women at a Family Planning Clinic in Northern Nigeria  [PDF]
A. Mohammed-Durosinlorun, A. Abubakar, J. Adze, S. Bature, C. Mohammed, M. Taingson, A. Ojabo
Health (Health) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/health.2016.83022
Abstract: Introduction: Breast feeding may pose a further challenge to uptake of contraception by possibly restricting use of certain methods for real or perceived risks of side effects. Methodology: A retrospective study was done at the Barau Dikko Teaching Hospital, Kaduna. Available family planning clinic client cards from January 1st, 2000 to March 31st, 2014 were retrieved and information collected on demographics, reproductive and menstrual history, contraceptive choices and breast feeding status. Data were analyzed using the statistical package for social sciences (SPSS) version 15. Missing responses were stated and excluded from analysis. Chi square was used as a test of association with significance level established at p value, 0.05. Results: A total number of 5992 client cards were retrieved. All clients were female and married, and majority of clients aged between 25 - 34 years (53.1%), had either completed their secondary education or gone further (56%) and were Muslims (52.3%). Only 2924 women stated that they were currently breastfeeding (48.8%), 1828 women were not breastfeeding (30.5%) and 1240 women (20.7%) did not state their breastfeeding status. Younger and more educated women were more likely to be breastfeeding than older women and less educated ones (p < 0.05). Only 4636 cards (77%) had correctly filled data on the choice of contraceptives chosen by breastfeeding status with 2854 women breast feeding and 1302 (45.6%) chose injectable hormonal contraception, 888 (31.1%) chose intrauterine contraceptive devices, 484 (17%) chose oral contraceptive pills and 180 (6.3%) chose contraceptive implants. There was no record of condom use or use of permanent methods of contraception. Conclusion: Breastfeeding rates were high among women seeking contraception. The pattern of contraception is similar among both breastfeeding and non-breastfeeding women, with injectable contraception being the preferred choice. Awareness should be raised on the safety of a wider variety of contraception available for breastfeeding women.
Iron Deficiency among Blood Donors in Sokoto, North Western, Nigeria  [PDF]
Osaro Erhabor, Sani Imrana, Hauwa A. Buhari, Yakubu Abdulrahaman, Abubakar A. Wase, Dorcas Ikhuenbor, Festus Aghedo
Open Journal of Blood Diseases (OJBD) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ojbd.2014.43005
Abstract: Objectives: There is a paucity of information on the prevalence of iron deficiency among blood donors in Sokoto, North Western, Nigeria. The present study was, therefore, designed to investigate the prevalence and socio-demographic factors associated with iron deficiency among blood donors in Sokoto, North Western, Nigeria using a combination of haemoglobin haematocrit and serum ferritin measurements. Materials and methods: One hundred and fifty consecutively recruited whole blood donors, comprising of 148 (98.7%) family replacement donors and 2 (1.3%) voluntary non-remunerated donors, 145 male (96.7%) and 5 (3.33%) female blood donors aged 18 - 60 years with mean age 39 ± 21 years constituted the subjects for this study. Subjects included farmers 55 (43.3%), 56 civil servants (37.3%) and 39 (26%) students. The full blood count was carried out using Mythic 22 CT fully automated haematology analyser (Orphee SA, Switzerland). Serum was tested for ferritin using a human ferritin enzyme immunoassay kit—ACCU DiagTM ELISA Ferritin kit (Diagnostic Automation/Cortez Diagnostic Inc. California (U.S.A). Result: Three haematological parameters (haemoglobin, packed cell volume and serum ferritin) were assessed among blood donors. The haemoglobin, packed cell volume and ferritin levels were significantly lower among regular voluntary remunerated blood donors (13.5 ± 0.00, 43.5 ± 2.0 and 34.88 ± 0.00) compared to Family replacement donors (14.10 ± .40, 45 ± 3.0 and 74.12 ± 45.20) respectively (p
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