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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 461780 matches for " A Rafei "
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Use of Mesenchymal Stem Cells to Grow Cartilage and Bone  [PDF]
Hosseyn Rafei
Journal of Cancer Therapy (JCT) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/jct.2015.66056
Abstract: Regardless of the fact that bones have a tremendous capacity to be repaired, there are various clinical situations where allographs seek to enhance the regeneration of bones through promotion of osteogenesis [1]. Precarious botches linked to the present grafting treatments include osteonecrosis along with restricted combination between the grafted and host tissues. It is considered that the fundamental issue with the present approaches to bone grafting is the fact that they lead to bone regeneration by means of direct osteogenesis. Therefore, it may be hypothesized that the use of cartilage in the promotion of endochondral regeneration of bones may leverage normal development and repair sequences resulting in a properly vascularized regenerate capable of integrating with the host tissues. Various tests have demonstrated that cartilage grafts are able to support the regeneration of vascularized and integrated bone tissues in vivo, while lineage tracing experiments have revealed graft derived regenerates.
Tuberculosis Surveillance Using a Hidden Markov Model
A Rafei,E Pasha,R Jamshidi Orak
Iranian Journal of Public Health , 2012,
Abstract: Background: Routinely collected data from tuberculosis surveillance system can be used to investigate and monitor the irregularities and abrupt changes of the disease incidence. We aimed at using a Hidden Markov Model in order to detect the abnormal states of pulmonary tuberculosis in Iran.Methods: Data for this study were the weekly number of newly diagnosed cases with sputum smear-positive pulmonarytuberculosis reported between April 2005 and March 2011 throughout Iran. In order to detect the unusual states of the disease, two Hidden Markov Models were applied to the data with and without seasonal trends as baselines.Consequently, the best model was selected and compared with the results of Serfling epidemic threshold which is typically used in the surveillance of infectious diseases.Results: Both adjusted R-squared and Bayesian Information Criterion (BIC) reflected better goodness-of-fit for the model with seasonal trends (0.72 and -1336.66, respectively) than the model without seasonality (0.56 and -1386.75).Moreover, according to the Serfling epidemic threshold, higher values of sensitivity and specificity suggest a higher validity for the seasonal model (0.87 and 0.94, respectively) than model without seasonality (0.73 and 0.68, respectively).Conclusion: A two-state Hidden Markov Model along with a seasonal trend as a function of the model parameters provides an effective warning system for the surveillance of tuberculosis.
Recovery of Phorbol from Oil of an Egyptian Jatropha
G. El-Diwani,Shadia El Rafei,S. Hawash,Ashraf A. Khalil
Asian Journal of Plant Sciences , 2012,
Abstract: Biofuels have been getting considerable attention because of global emphasis on reducing greenhouse gases, considering the environment and energy security. The use of biodiesel to (partially) replace fossil diesel has a significant potential for reducing pollution and creating economic benefits for farmers. Jatropha curcas is a non-edible crop and an important source for producing clean energy from its oil. Seeds and other parts of Jatropha can be processed to produce oil containing substances called phorbol esters. These esters can recovered as valuable co-products to be used for various agricultural, medical and pharmaceutical applications. On the other hand, clays (bentonite) are usually in fixing the organic compounds. In the present study we investigated the adsorption and sorption of phorbol esters on clays. We found that the optimum conditions for adsorption of phorbol esters were using 15% (w/v) of bentonite stirred at 100 rpm and at room temperature. Bentonite characterization was done using infrared spectroscopy and X-rays diffraction. Desorption of phorbol esters has been evaluated and achieved co-product recovery of 82-100% from Jatropha oil.
Investigation of Clinical Medical Teachers’ Opinion about Validity-Feasibility of Clinical Assessment Tools in Medical Sciences Universities in Tehran  [PDF]
Jalil Kuhpayeh Zadeh, Helen Dargahi, Jila Shajari, Rafei Ali, Mahsa Narenjiha, Soudabeh Afsharpour, Darioush Mehdivarzi
Creative Education (CE) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/ce.2012.326144
Abstract: The purpose of this study is investigation about validity and feasibility of clinical assessment methods in the point of view of clinical instructors. The descriptive study was done in Tehran city universities. Population study consisted of academic clinical experts. The instrument was a two-part questionnaire made by using Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education )ACGME) suggested questionnaire and valid scientific resources. Sampling was based-objected. Total of obtained questionnaires were 83 which were collected from universities Tehran University of Medical Sciences (39), Iran University of Medical Sciences (24) and Shahid Beheshti Medical University (20). Data analysis was conducted by SPSS16. Data indicated that the majority of the study population believed that MCQ (97.6%) is used in clinical setting. OSCE (92.8%) and Logbook (86.7%) are the next methods. Furthermore, Multi-Source Feedback (MSF) (8.4%) and Portfolio (6%) are not often used; whereas the most suitable and feasible medical students' clinical assessment tools in variety of domains are completely different so that there are lots of suggested methods for efficient evaluation. Also, the most suitable and feasible methods were the same in 60% cases. Clearly, no single rating is able to provide the whole story about any doctor’s ability to practice medicine, as this requires the demonstration of ongoing competence across a number of different general and specific areas.
PROJECT SYSTEM ANALYSIS FOR PLANNING RURAL WATER SUPPLY OF 31 KECAMATANS IN WEST JAVA
Sri Soewasti Soesanto,Uton Muchtar Rafei
Bulletin of Health Research , 2012,
Abstract: Dalam bulan Januari dan Februari 1973 dengan kerjasama antara Wold Health Organisation aan Departemen Kesehatan telah diadakan pemakaian Project System Analysis (P.S.A.) untuk perencanaan air minum pedesaan di 31 kecamatan Jawa Barat. Daerah yang dipilih adalah daerah kritis. Yang di-maksud dengan daerah kritis yalah daerah yang kepadatan dan kecepatan pertambahan penduduknya tinggi, sukar mendapatkan air, angka penyakit cholera/gastro-enteritis tinggi dan potensi pengem-bangan sosial-ekonominya rendah. Penduduk dari 31 kecamatan ± 10 persen jumlah penduduk propinsi Jawa Barat yang ditahun 1988 diperkirakan akan menjadi 2,5 juta orang yang penghasilannya relatif rendah. System analysis memakai pendekatan macro planning dimana 31 kecamatan diberikan urutan pri-oritas berdasarkan besarnya masalah dengan mengingat faktor demografi, socio-ekonomi, tehnologi air, kesehatan dan bantuan masyarakat. Lebih lanjut diadakan analisa terperinci mengenai tehnologi dan kegiatan penyediaan air minum. Demikian pula diadakan analisa mengenai tenaga kerja, bahan dan biaya yang diperlukan untuk menjalankan kegiatan tersebut di atas serta diadadakan analisa ham-batan. Dalam perencanaan ini ditentukan sasaran program sebanyak ± 6.500 sistim yang terdiri dari mata air, sumur artesis dan penggunaan air permukaan dengan atau tanpa pengolahan dan pembagian. Sistim penyediaan air ini diharapkan dapat menghasilkan 150.000 M air minum per hari (1736 1/det) untuk dibagikan di 7 kabupaten. Untuk penyelenggaraan dan pemeliharaan sistim yang sedemikian besar diperlukan organisasi yang mantap. Beberapa alternatif organisasi disarankan dalam P.S.A. ini. Seluruh program ditaksir akan memakan biaya pembangunan Rp. 4,3 milyard atau Rp. 1.750,-per orang. Selanjutnya tiap tahun harus dibayar Rp. 80,- per capita oleh masyarakat dibantu pemerin-tah untuk biaya pelayanan.
Comparison of some electrolytes in hydatid cyst fluid and serum of liver hydatidosis of sheep
Mahmoud Rahdar,Sharif Maraghi,Abdullah Rafei,Mhommad Razijalali
Jundishapur Journal of Microbiology , 2008,
Abstract: In this study, we collected 100 samples of liver hydatid cyst and blood of infected sheep from the Ahvaz abattoir. The existing Ca, P, Mg, Na and K were measured by an auto analyzer apparatus. The result of T. student test showed that there are a significant difference between serum and fluid of cyst in all electrolytes (p<0.05). There was also a significant difference between these electrolytes in infected sheep and normal sheep (p<0.05). These results confirmed that the entrance of essential electrolytes have depended on selective permeability and parasite requirement. Ca and P have vital roles in the prevention of hydatid cyst fluid acidity. Understanding parasite nutrition behavior would help us to conduct a better drug treatment in inoperative cyst via selection of effective drug and adherence of this drug to biological material that promote distribution of drug to the cyst.
Prediction of Grip Strength in Iranian Young Healthy Population
Taher Afsharnezhad,Farzaneh Saki,Sadegh Rafei,Mina Mallaei
Modern Rehabilitation , 2012,
Abstract: Background and aim: Grip strength (GS) is an important measure of general health to predict mortality, disability and function of the hand. The purpose of this study was to develop equations to predict grip strength based on several anthropometric measurements using a multiple regression analysis.Materials and Methods: Four hundred and eleven males and 671 females college students, ages 18-30 years, in good health, participated voluntarily in this study. This sample was randomly assigned to the model-development (n=867) and cross-validation (n=215) groups. Four equations were developed by using data from the model development group, then cross-validated on the second group. A hand-held dynamometer was used to measure grip strengths. All anthropometric measurements such as hand anthropometry, forearm circumference (FC), lean body mass, skeletal muscle mass and arm muscle area were taken according to standard techniques. Results: It was found that grip strength has a significant correlation with all anthropometric measurements. Forearm length (FL) was correlated to grip (68% explained variance) in a linear relationship, followed by upper limb length and SM. All four equations were confirmed by cross-validation. Because of simplicity and easy-to-measure the following equations were selected for prediction grip: Dominant hand, A) 0.464×Age(yr)+0.392×Height(cm)+0.681×BMI-13.035×Sex(0 for men and 1 for women)-46.160, B) 0.029×FC×FL-8.634×sex+13.872; Non-dominant hand: C) 0.347×Age+0.386× Height+0.657×BMI-13.313×Sex-44.243, D) 0.029×FC×FL-8.752×sex+13.788.Conclusion: The six easy-to-measure cofactors sex, age, height, BMI, forearm length and forearm circumference provide a highly accurate prediction of normative grip strength.
Interleukin-21 Accelerates Thymic Recovery from Glucocortico?d-Induced Atrophy
Moutih Rafei, Maude Dumont-Lagacé, Alexandre Rouette, Claude Perreault
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0072801
Abstract: Both physiological and psychological stress cause thymic atrophy via glucocortico?d (GC)-dependent apoptosis of double-positive (DP) thymocytes. Given the pervasiveness of stress, GC-induced thymic atrophy is arguably the most common type of acquired immunodeficiency. We recently reported that interleukin-21 (IL-21) has a unique ability to expand the small subset of DP thymocytes (CD69+) which are ongoing positive selection, and that administration of IL-21 increases thymic output in aged mice. The goal of this study was to evaluate whether IL-21 could mitigate GC-induced thymic atrophy. In contrast to double-negative (DN) and single-positive (SP) thymocytes, most DP thymocytes (CD69?) do not constitutively express the IL-21 receptor (IL-21R). Accordingly, CD69? DP thymocytes from PBS-treated mice were unresponsive to IL-21 administration. However, following GC injection, surviving CD69? DP thymocytes up-regulated IL-21R and responded to IL-21 treatment as evidenced by enhancement of Bcl6 expression and phosphorylation of STAT1, STAT3 and STAT5. Consequently, IL-21 administration to GC-treated mice accelerated thymic recovery by expanding considerably DP thymocytes and, to a lesser extent, DN thymocytes. However, IL-21-induced expansion of DN/DP thymocytes did not alter the diversity of the intrathymic or peripheral T-cell receptor (TCR) repertoire. We conclude that IL-21 dramatically accelerates recovery from GC-induced thymic atrophy.
A MCP1 fusokine with CCR2-specific tumoricidal activity
Moutih Rafei, Jiusheng Deng, Marie-No?lle Boivin, Patrick Williams, Shannon M Matulis, Shala Yuan, Elena Birman, Kathy Forner, Liangping Yuan, Craig Castellino, Lawrence H Boise, Tobey J MacDonald, Jacques Galipeau
Molecular Cancer , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/1476-4598-10-121
Abstract: We have generated a novel fusion protein using GMCSF and an N-terminal truncated version of MCP1/CCL2 (6-76) [hereafter GMME1] and investigated its utility as a CCR2-specific tumoricidal agent.We found that distinct to full length CCL2 or its N-truncated derivative (CCL2 5-76), GMME1 bound to CCR2 on mouse lymphoma EG7, human multiple myeloma cell line U266, or murine and human medulloblastoma cell lines, and led to their death by apoptosis. We demonstrated that GMME1 specifically blocked CCR2-associated STAT3 phosphorylation and up-regulated pro-apoptotic BAX. Furthermore, GMME1 significantly inhibited EG7 tumor growth in C57BL/6 mice, and induced apoptosis of primary myeloma cells from patients.Our data demonstrate that GMME1 is a fusokine with a potent, CCR2 receptor-mediated pro-apoptotic effect on tumor cells and could be exploited as a novel biological therapy for CCR2+ malignancies including lymphoid and central nervous system malignancies.CC Chemokines and their cognate receptors are involved in the proliferation and metastasis of several tumors [1]. The CCL2/CCR2 axis is a direct example as highlighted by CCL2-driven proliferation and survival of hematological [2,3] and solid tumors [4,5]. Thus, inhibiting CCL2 or its receptor may allow a direct interference with tumor biology.As an alternative to the development of neutralizing or antagonizing antibodies, our group has focussed on the engineering of bifunctional proteins borne from the fusion of two biologically distinct cytokines [6-12]. These fusokines have been shown to lead to novel unheralded pharmacological effects including potent, receptor-specific antitumor effects [6,11]. Interestingly, granulocyte macrophage-colony stimulating factor (GMCSF)-based fusokines may either lead to pro-inflammatory synergy or profoundly antagonistic properties depending on the influence played by the GMCSF moiety of the fusokine on the C-terminal partner signalling pathway.The previously described GMME1 fusion protein
The Spread of Infectious Disease on Network Using Neutrosophic Algebraic Structure  [PDF]
A. Zubairu, A. A. Ibrahim
Open Journal of Discrete Mathematics (OJDM) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/ojdm.2017.72009
Abstract: Network theory and its associated techniques has tremendous impact in various discipline and research, from computer, engineering, architecture, humanities, social science to system biology. However in recent years epidemiology can be said to utilizes these potentials of network theory more than any other discipline. Graph which has been considered as the processor in network theory has a close relationship with epidemiology that dated as far back as early 1900 [1]. This is because the earliest models of infectious disease transfer were in a form of compartment which defines a graph even though adequate knowledge of mathematical computation and mechanistic behavior is scarce. This paper introduces a new type of disease propagation on network utilizing the potentials of neutrosophic algebraic group structures and graph theory.
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