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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 461725 matches for " A Kwara "
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Outcome of Hospital Admissions in HIV-infected Children at the Korle Bu Teaching Hospital, Accra, Ghana
A Kwara, D Shah, LA Renner
West African Journal of Medicine , 2010,
Abstract: BACKGROUND: The burden of paediatric HIV infection remains high in resource-poor settings. Information on morbidity leading to hospitalisation as well as outcome is limited. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to determine the reasons for hospital admissions of HIV-infected paediatric patients to a tertiary teaching hospital and the outcome of these admissions. METHODS: Retrospective chart review of inpatient records of all HIV-infected children aged 0 to 13 years admitted to the paediatric unit at Korle-Bu Teaching Hospital from 30 June 2007 to 30 June 2008 was performed. ed data included age, gender, weight, presenting conditions, diagnosis, duration of hospitalisation, antiretroviral treatment, and outcome. RESULTS: A total of 102 admissions occurred among 76 children. The mean age of the children was 4.5 ± 3.79 years and 42 (55%) were males. HIV diagnosis was made during hospitalisation in 23 (30%) of the 76 patients. Overall, 55 (64%) of the 76 patients had a weight for age of < 2nd percentile and 67% were not on antiretroviral therapy at time of admission. Of the 102 admissions, the predominant diagnosis included pneumonia (40%), gastroenteritis (24%), pulmonary tuberculosis (22%), and/or malaria (19%). Death occurred in 12 of the 102 admissions. Age, gender, and admitting diagnosis were not associated with death. CONCLUSIONS: Failure to thrive and common prevalent infections were the predominant reasons for hospitalisation for paediatric HIV/AIDS patients in Accra. Hospitalisations with these conditions should prompt early HIV testing. Efforts should be intensified to prevent maternal to child transmission of HIV infection.
High frequency of first-line anti-tuberculosis drug resistance among persons with chronic pulmonary tuberculosis at a teaching hospital chest clinic
A Forson, S Kudzawu, A Kwara, T Flanigan
Ghana Medical Journal , 2010,
Abstract: Introduction: The burden of MDR-TB is unknown in areas that do not have drug susceptibility testing (DST), but its frequency is expected to be higher in previously treated cases. Where DST is not available the WHO recommended standardized retreatment (Category II) regimen is given to previously treated TB patients Objective: To evaluate the frequency and pattern of drug resistance of Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolated from patients with chronic smear positive pulmonary tuberculosis. Method: We conducted a retrospective review of mycobacterial cultures and drug susceptibility testing (DST) performed on sputum samples collected, between January 2005 and September 2006, from 40 patients with pulmonary TB who had failed at least one standard retreatment regimen. Clinical data was extracted from patients’ case notes. Results: M. tuberculosis was recovered from 28 (70%) of the 40 patients. Of the 28 culture positive cases, 10 (36%) had resistance to at least rifampicin and isoniazid (multi-drug resistant TB), 22 (79%) isolates had resistance to streptomycin and 13 (46%) to ethambutol. Of the patients with a positive culture, only one (3.6%) had a fully susceptible organism. Of the 10 patients with MDR TB, 7 had received two or more retreatment courses. Conclusion: The frequency of drug resistant TB was high among patients who failed at least one course of category II therapy. Effective combination regimens based on DST is necessary in patients who remain smear positive on the standardized retreatment regimen.
Some Inequalities for the Ratios of Generalized Digamma Functions
Kwara Nantomah
Mathematics , 2014,
Abstract: Some inequalities for the ratios of generalized digamma functions are presented. The approache makes use of the series representations of the $(q,k)$-digamma and $(p,q)$-digamma functions.
The $(p,q)$-Analogues of Some Inequalities for the Digamma Function
Kwara Nantomah
Mathematics , 2014,
Abstract: In this paper, we present the (p; q)-analogues of some inequalities concerning the digamma function. Our results generalize some earlier results.
Further Inequalities Associated with the Classical Gamma Function
Kwara Nantomah
Mathematics , 2015,
Abstract: In this paper, we present some double inequalities involving certain ratios of the Gamma function. These results are further generalizations of several previous results. The approach is based on the monotonicity properties of some functions involving the the generalized Gamma functions. At the end, we pose some open problems.
Human Immunodeficiency Virus, Syphilis Prevalence and Risk Factors among Migrant Workers in Konongo, Ghana  [PDF]
Andrew A. Adjei, James Brandful, Mark Lurie, Margaret Lartey, Francis Krampa, Awewura Kwara, Theophilus K. Adiku, Yao Tettey, Richard K. Gyasi, Aaron L. Lawson, Timothy Flanigan
Advances in Infectious Diseases (AID) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/aid.2014.43020
Abstract: Migrant workers, particularly gold mining workers, have been identified as a group at risk for HIV and sexually transmitted infections (STI). A cross-sectional study was undertaken on the correlates of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and syphilis infections in a sample of migrants (Ghanaian citizens [156] and non-Ghanaian citizens [8]) working in a gold mining centres in Konongo, Ghana. The study was conducted between the months of January 2013 to December 2013. Of a total of 600 eligible migrant workers, only 164 (27.33%; males 114, females 50) of the eligible migrants took part in the study. Subjects voluntarily completed a risk-factor questionnaire and provided blood specimen for testing for the presence of antibodies to HIV and Treponema pallidum, the causative agent of syphilis. These data were analyzed using both univariate and multivariate techniques. The median age of the participants was 29.0 years (range 18 - 62 years). Of the 164 migrant workers tested, HIV and syphilis seroprevalence were 6.7% and 3.7% respectively. On multivariate analysis, the independent determinants for HIV infection were being female [odds ratio (OR) 2.94; 95% confidence interval (95% CI 0.86 - 10.0); unmarried (OR 10.13; 95% CI 1.2 - 81.09); drug use (OR 3.76; 95% CI 0.38 - 36.3); and blood transfusion (OR 2.45; 95% CI 0.27 - 22.37). Similarly, on multivariate analysis, the independent determinants for syphilis infection were having concurrent sexual partners (OR 2.16; 95% CI 0.38 - 12.12); and blood transfusion (OR 5.07; 95% CI 0.51 - 50.37). Consistent with similar studies worldwide, our results suggest high prevalence of HIV and syphilis infections among migrant workers who work in gold mining centres in Ghana.
Highly active antiretroviral therapy and employment status in Accra, Ghana
IW Howley, M Lartey, JT Machan, EA Talbot, A Obo-Akwa, TP Flanigan, A Kwara
Ghana Medical Journal , 2010,
Abstract: Objectives: This study investigated the immunologic responses and employment history of highly-active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) patients. Design: We interviewed patients and reviewed medical records to collect demographic, clinical, and employ-ment history while on HAART. Demographic charac-teristics were tested as predictors of immunological response while on HAART using hierarchical linear models. Setting: Fevers Unit, Korle-Bu Teaching Hospital, Accra, Ghana Participants: Subjects comprised a convenience sam-ple of adult HAART patients receiving therapy for at least 9 months. 270 patients were interviewed. 38 were excluded due to inadequate time on HAART or inabil-ity to locate all necessary patient information. Intervention: This was an observational study. Main outcome measures: We investigated the change in CD4 cell count and weight since the initiation of therapy, and their ability to maintain or regain em-ployment as well as the reasons for this. Results: The estimated mean ± standard error increase in CD4 cell count from baseline at 6, 12, and 18 months were 102 ± 5, 204 ± 11, and 236 ± 10 cells/ìL, respectively. Overall, 147 patients (63.4%) reported remaining employed or obtaining new employment while on HAART. Patients who were asymptomatic at initial presentation were more likely to remain em-ployed or returned to work while on HAART than those who were symptomatic (66.4% vs. 48.8%, P = 0.009). Most patients were employed in the informal sector, which made their economic situation particu-larly vulnerable to HIV-associated illness. Conclusion: The findings suggest that patients receiv-ing HAART experience good clinical and immunologi-cal responses as well as improvement in employment status.
Generalizations of Some Inequalities for the $p$-Gamma, $q$-Gamma and $k$-Gamma Functions
Kwara Nantomah,Edward Prempeh
Mathematics , 2015,
Abstract: In this paper, we present and prove some generalizations of some inequalities for the $p$-Gamma, $q$-Gamma and $k$-Gamma functions. Our approach makes use of the series representations of the psi, $p$-psi, $q$-psi and $k$-psi functions.
Certain Inequalities Involving the $q$-Deformed Gamma Function
Kwara Nantomah,Edward Prempeh
Mathematics , 2015,
Abstract: This paper is inspired by the work of J. S\'{a}ndor in 2006. In the paper, the authors establish some double inequalities involving the ratio $ \frac{\Gamma_{q}(x+1)}{ \Gamma_{q} \left( x+\frac{1}{2}\right)}$, where $\Gamma_{q}(x)$ is the $q$-deformation of the classical Gamma function denoted by $\Gamma(x)$. The method employed in presenting the results makes use of Jackson's $q$-integral representation of the $q$-deformed Gamma function. In addition, H\"{o}lder's inequality for the $q$-integral, as well as some basic analytical techniques involving the $q$-analogue of the psi function are used. As a consequence, $q$-analogues of the classical Wendel's asymptotic relation are obtained. At the end, sharpness of the inequalities established in this paper is investigated.
Some inequalities for the $q$-Extension of the Gamma Function
Kwara Nantomah,Edward Prempeh,Stephen Boakye Twum
Mathematics , 2015,
Abstract: In this paper, the authors establish some inequalities involving the $q$-extension of the classical Gamma function. These inequalities provide bounds for certain ratios of the $q$-extended Gamma function. The procedure makes use of geometric convexity and monotonicy properties of certain functions associated with the $q$-extended Gamma function.
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