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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 463047 matches for " A Grant "
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A tale of histone modifications
Patrick A Grant
Genome Biology , 2001, DOI: 10.1186/gb-2001-2-4-reviews0003
Abstract: In eukaryotes, genomic DNA is packaged with histone proteins into chromatin, compacting DNA some 10,000-fold. Such condensation of DNA provides a considerable obstacle to the nuclear machinery that drives processes such as replication, transcription or DNA repair. Importantly, the structure of chromatin dynamically changes, permitting localized decondensation and remodeling that facilitates the progress of nuclear machinery. An emerging theme in the field of chromatin research has been the significant role that posttranslational modifications of histones play in regulating nuclear function. Over the past few years, considerable progress has been made into the identification of the enzymatic machines that modify these proteins, and this review is devoted to our current understanding of the array of core histone modifications and the factors that regulate them.The basic repeating unit of chromatin is the nucleosome, typically composed of an octamer of the four core histones H2A, H2B, H3 and H4 and 146 basepairs of DNA wrapped around the histones [1]. Each core histone is composed of a structured domain and an unstructured amino-terminal 'tail' of 25-40 residues. This unstructured tail extends through the DNA gyres and into the space surrounding the nucleosomes. Histone tails provide sites for a variety of posttranslational modifications, including acetylation, phosphorylation and methylation. It is becoming increasingly apparent that such modifications of histone tails determine the interactions of histones with other proteins, which may in turn also regulate chromatin structure [2]. Identifying the multitude of histone modifications, the enzymes that generate them and the nuclear response to any given pattern of alterations poses a fascinating challenge.The acetylation and deacetylation of the ε-amino groups of conserved lysine residues present in histone tails has long been linked to transcriptional activity [3] and has been the most intensively studied histone modi
What can we learn from b->s gamma?
A. K. Grant
Physics , 1998, DOI: 10.1016/S0168-9002(98)00252-6
Abstract: We review some recent theoretical progress in the understanding of weak radiative B meson decay, and discuss the implications of present and improved measurements of b -> s gamma for supersymmetric models.
Homogenized Porcine Extracellular Matrix Derived Injectable Tissue Construct with Gold Nanoparticles for Musculoskeletal Tissue Engineering Applications  [PDF]
Sarah E. Smith, Colten L. Snider, David R. Gilley, Daniel N. Grant, Seth L. Sherman, Bret D. Ulery, David A. Grant, Sheila A. Grant
Journal of Biomaterials and Nanobiotechnology (JBNB) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/jbnb.2017.82009
Abstract: A unique porcine extracellular matrix (ECM) derived injectable tissue construct with 100 nm or 20 nm gold nanoparticles (AuNP) was developed for musculoskeletal tissue engineering applications. ECM has been shown to encourage cellularity and tissue remodeling due to its release of growth factors while AuNP have been shown to reduce reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels. Injectable tissue constructs were created by homogenizing decellularized porcine diaphragm tendon conjugated with 100 nm or 20 nm AuNP at 1x, 4x, and 8x concentrations. Extrusion force testing demonstrated that homogenized tissue constructs were injectable at an appropriate cannula size and force. L-929 murine fibroblasts were used to measure cell viability, cell proliferation, intracellular ROS levels, and cell migration in response to constructs. Enhanced cell viability and proliferation are observed on 1 × 20 nm AuNP constructs. ROS assays demonstrate reduced cellular ROS concentrations from all 20 nm AuNP constructs and from 8 × 100 nm AuNP constructs compared with constructs without nanoparticles. Cellular migration is higher towards 4 × 20 nm AuNP constructs compared with constructs without nanoparticles. Results support the potential use of a porcine ECM derived injectable tissue construct with AuNP as an injectable tissue construct to reduce inflammation and to promote tissue remodeling in musculoskeletal tissue engineering applications.
The Effects of a Single Bout of Exercise on Mood and Self-Esteem in Clinically Diagnosed Mental Health Patients  [PDF]
Naomi J. Ellis, Jason A. Randall, Grant Punnett
Open Journal of Medical Psychology (OJMP) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ojmp.2013.23013
Abstract: Objectives: Research has highlighted the importance of regular exercise within the general population and mental health groups in regard to mood and self-esteem, as well as single bout exercise within the general population. However, research into single bout exercise in mental health population is lacking. This study investigated the impact of a single bout of exercise, on mood and self-esteem, in patients with a wider clinical mental health diagnosis. Design: A quantitative questionnaire was completed immediately pre and post a single, 45 minute bout of moderate intensity exercise, consisting of the Brunel Universal Mood States (BRUMS) questionnaire and the Rosenberg Self Esteem Scale (RSE). Methods: Participants attending a mental health hospital with a clinical mental health diagnosis (N = 54) completed the questionnaire. Information regarding physical activity levels, mental health diagnosis and length of hospital stay were collated. Results: A significant improvement was identified on the RSE as well as the BRUMS (depression, anger, confusion, anxious tension and vigour) over time. Conclusion: The significant findings highlight the importance of exercise promotion within this population group, and the potentially beneficial role that a single bout of exercise can have on mood and self-esteem in patients experiencing mental health problems.
Cadmium and Zinc Concentration in Grain of Durum Wheat in Relation to Phosphorus Fertilization, Crop Sequence and Tillage Management
Xiaopeng Gao,Cynthia A. Grant
Applied and Environmental Soil Science , 2012, DOI: 10.1155/2012/817107
Abstract: Field experiments were conducted at two locations in Manitoba, Canada, to determine the effect of crop rotation, phosphorus (P) fertilization and tillage on grain yield and grain concentrations of Cd and Zn in durum wheat (Triticum durum L.). Compared to conventional tillage (CT), reduced tillage (RT) management decreased grain Cd and increased grain yield and grain Zn in half of the site-years. The type of preceding crops of spring wheat-flax or canola-flax had little influence. Rate and timing of P application had little effect on grain Cd, but increasing P rate tended to decrease grain Zn. No interactive effect was detected among tested factors. Grain Zn was not related to grain Cd, but positively to other nutrients such as Fe, Mn, P, Ca, K, and Mg. Both grain Zn and Fe correlated positively with grain protein content, suggesting protein may represent a sink for micronutrients. The study suggested that the tillage management may have beneficial effects on both grain yield and quality. Phosphorus fertilizer can remain available for subsequent crops and high annual inputs in the crop sequence may decrease crop grain Zn. Understanding the environment is important in determining the impact of agricultural management on agronomic and nutrient traits. 1. Introduction Cadmium (Cd) accumulation in soils and cereal crops and its transfer to the human diet is a widespread problem around the world. Durum wheat (Triticum durum L.) is of particular concern because it accumulates more Cd than the other commonly grown cereals with accumulation increasing in the order of rye < barley < oats < bread wheat < durum wheat [1]. Cadmium concentration in durum wheat grain harvested on Canadian prairies have been reported to range from less than 50 to more than 300?μg kg?1 [2], at times exceeding the 200?μg kg?1 limit set by the Codex Alimentarius Commission [3]. In addition, approximately 2.1 × 106?ha durum wheat, which occupies 10% of worldwide durum production area, is grown in the western Prairie region of Canada [4]. Therefore, there is a desire in the Canadian farming industry to control the Cd levels in the durum grain, either by improved agricultural management practices [5] or by breeding low Cd-accumulating cultivars [6, 7]. Accumulation of metal elements in crop grains can be regulated by several physiological processes, including uptake from the soil solution, root-to-shoot translocation, and retranslocation into the grain during maturation. Zinc (Zn) and Cd are chemically similar and can compete for common transport mechanisms for uptake and translocation in
Assessing Predictors of Changes in Protein Stability upon Mutation Using Self-Consistency
Grant Thiltgen, Richard A. Goldstein
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0046084
Abstract: The ability to predict the effect of mutations on protein stability is important for a wide range of tasks, from protein engineering to assessing the impact of SNPs to understanding basic protein biophysics. A number of methods have been developed that make these predictions, but assessing the accuracy of these tools is difficult given the limitations and inconsistencies of the experimental data. We evaluate four different methods based on the ability of these methods to generate consistent results for forward and back mutations, and examine how this ability varies with the nature and location of the mutation. We find that, while one method seems to outperform the others, the ability of these methods to make accurate predictions is limited.
Reply to “Comment on the ‘Ground Water Chemistry Changes before Major Earthquakes and Possible Effects on Animals’, by R. A. Grant, T. Halliday, W. P. Balderer, F. Leuenberger, M. Newcomer, G. Cyr and F. T. Freund. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health, 2011, 8, 1936–1956” from Friedemann Freund, Rachel Grant and Co-Authors
Friedemann Freund,Rachel A. Grant
International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health , 2012, DOI: 10.3390/ijerph9072343
Abstract: We fully agree with Dr. Vassiliki Katsika-Tsigourakou that there is more than one possible explanation for the wide range of electromagnetic (EM) field bioeffects reported in the literature. In order to generate EM fields electric currents need to flow that oscillate. Currents that flow through the ground also generate electrical potentials. Such potentials can lead to electrochemical reactions at ground-water interfaces such as the demonstrated oxidation of water to hydrogen peroxide [1]. EM emissions and electrochemical reactions are therefore manifestations of the same physical process in the natural environment. [...]
Modifying the Victor? Easy Set? Rat Trap to Improve the Animal Welfare of Stoats and Ship Rats Trapped in New Zealand
Grant A. Morriss, Bruce Warburton
PLOS ONE , 2014, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0086760
Abstract: Stoats (Mustela erminea) and ship rats (Rattus rattus) in New Zealand are targeted by trapping to mitigate their predation on native wildlife. Internationally recognized guidelines for assessing the effectiveness and welfare performance of kill traps are supported by New Zealand legislation under the Animal Welfare Act 1999. The Victor? Easy Set? rat trap was tested and passed a similar standard for killing short-tailed weasels in Canada but failed for stoats when tested in New Zealand in 2002 (short-tailed weasels and stoats are the same species). We tested a modified version of the trap in 2011–12, modified by changing the treadle trigger to a pull trigger and adding a plastic shroud to direct and align approach by animals to the front of the trap. These traps, in vertical and horizontal sets, were tested with both stoats and ship rats. During each test the trap had to render 10 of 10 animals irreversibly unconscious within 3 minutes to meet approval requirements. The modified trap passed with both species in both trap sets. All stoats were struck across the cranium whereas rats were struck either on the cranium or neck. We recommend this trap design for use by community conservation groups for targeting stoats and ship rats in New Zealand.
Frog Swarms: Earthquake Precursors or False Alarms?
Rachel A. Grant,Hilary Conlan
Animals , 2013, DOI: 10.3390/ani3040962
Abstract: In short-term earthquake risk forecasting, the avoidance of false alarms is of utmost importance to preclude the possibility of unnecessary panic among populations in seismic hazard areas. Unusual animal behaviour prior to earthquakes has been reported for millennia but has rarely been scientifically documented. Recently large migrations or unusual behaviour of amphibians have been linked to large earthquakes, and media reports of large frog and toad migrations in areas of high seismic risk such as Greece and China have led to fears of a subsequent large earthquake. However, at certain times of year large migrations are part of the normal behavioural repertoire of amphibians. News reports of “frog swarms” from 1850 to the present day were examined for evidence that this behaviour is a precursor to large earthquakes. It was found that only two of 28 reported frog swarms preceded large earthquakes (Sichuan province, China in 2008 and 2010). All of the reported mass migrations of amphibians occurred in late spring, summer and autumn and appeared to relate to small juvenile anurans (frogs and toads). It was concluded that most reported “frog swarms” are actually normal behaviour, probably caused by juvenile animals migrating away from their breeding pond, after a fruitful reproductive season. As amphibian populations undergo large fluctuations in numbers from year to year, this phenomenon will not occur on a yearly basis but will depend on successful reproduction, which is related to numerous climatic and geophysical factors. Hence, most large swarms of amphibians, particularly those involving very small frogs and occurring in late spring or summer, are not unusual and should not be considered earthquake precursors. In addition, it is likely that reports of several mass migration of small toads prior to the Great Sichuan Earthquake in 2008 were not linked to the subsequent M = 7.9 event (some occurred at a great distance from the epicentre), and were probably co-incidence. Statistical analysis of the data indicated frog swarms are unlikely to be connected with earthquakes. Reports of unusual behaviour giving rise to earthquake fears should be interpreted with caution, and consultation with experts in the field of earthquake biology is advised.
Dopaminergic foundations of schizotypy as measured by the German version of the Oxford-Liverpool Inventory of Feelings and Experiences (O-LIFE)—a suitable endophenotype of schizophrenia
Phillip Grant,Eva A. Mueller
Frontiers in Human Neuroscience , 2013, DOI: 10.3389/fnhum.2013.00001
Abstract: The concept of schizotypy or “psychosis proneness” captures individual differences in perceptual, cognitive, and affective experiences that may relate to a range of psychotic disorders. The concept is an important way to assess the contribution of pre-existing psychological and genetically based biological features to the development of illnesses such as schizophrenia (so called endophenotypes). The Oxford-Liverpool Inventory of Feelings and Experiences (O-LIFE) is a widely used multi-dimensional measure of the construct and consists of four scales which mirror several groups of psychotic symptoms: Unusual Experiences (UnEx; positive symptoms), Cognitive Disorganization (CogDis; cognitive symptoms), Introvertive Anhedonia (IntAn; negative symptoms), and Impulsive Nonconformity (ImpNon; impulsive and antisocial symptoms). For the purpose of evaluating the suitability of schizotypy as an endophenotype of schizophrenia the current version of the O-LIFE was translated into German: its psychometric properties (including re-test reliability and construct validity) were examined in a large sample (n > 1200) and compared to those of the English original. The German version was both highly reliable and consistent with the original. The study aimed to show that schizotypy as measured by the O-LIFE can indeed be regarded as an endophenotype of schizophrenia in terms of genetic associations regarding relevant dopamine-related candidate polymorphisms of schizotypy [i.e., Val158Met-polymorphism of the COMT gene, uVNTR of the MAOA gene, Taq1A-polymorphism of the DRD2 gene, VNTR of the SLC6A3 (DAT) gene]. We also wanted to compare the genetic associations of the O-LIFE to those published using other operationalizations of schizotypy. Our results show a large number of significant associations and borderline-significant trends between the O-LIFE sub-scales and a range of genes, thereby supporting using the O-LIFE in the search for endophenotypic markers.
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