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ROLE OF CHOLINERGIC SYSTEM ON THE CONSTRUCTION OF MEMORY AND ITS INTERACTION WITH DOPAMINERGIC SYSTEM
F. Z. Zangeneh,F. Motammedi A. Bakhtiarian
Acta Medica Iranica , 2006,
Abstract: The central cholinergic system has been associated with cognitive function and memory and acetylcholine plays an important role during the early stages of memory consolidation. In this study, after training mice were tested with one way active avoidance procedure and retention were tested at 4, 8, 12, 16 and 24 hours of training and compared with non-shocked mice, in which it took 24 hours, a suitable time for retention test. Low dose administration of arecoline and physostigmine pre-training, immediate post-training and before retrieval showed that muscarinic agonist arecoline can potentiated memory in post trained and retrieval phases and reversible cholinesterase inhibitor physostigmine potentiated memory only in retrieval phase. Scopolamine disrupted acetylcholine potentiation only in retrieval phase. In the second part of this study, the effect of dopaminergic system was investigated. Low dose of apomorphine and D2 agonist bromocriptine potentiated memory when administered immediately post-training, and D2 antagonist sulpiride impaired memory. When the cholinergic system was blocked by scopolamine immediately post-training, apomorphine and bromocriptine potentiated memory and sulpiride impaired it. In conclusion, these results suggest that, cholinergic system in retrieval phase is very critical and there was no interaction between the two systems in the post-training phase.
The effect of N6-Cyclopentyladenosine on ouabain-Induced toxicity: isolated guinea pig atria
Bakhtiarian A,Behzadmehr R,Pousti A,Hosseini MJ
Tehran University Medical Journal , 2009,
Abstract: "nBackground: Adenosine receptors play an important role in the treatment of paroxysmal supraventricular tachycardia in cardiovascular system. This effect is through interaction with A1 type of G-protein-coupled adenosine receptors. The effect of N6-cyclopentyladenosine (CPA), an A1-selective adenosine agonist, was studied on ouabain-induced toxicity in spontaneously beating isolated guinea pig atria. "nMethods: In the beginning the isolated guinea pig atria were mounted on the organ bath containing modified krebs and contractile responses in the four groups (shame, CPA, ouabain, CPA- ouabain) were measured. "nResults: CPA (2-16nM) produced a dose-dependent decrease in the force of contractions (34%-51%) and in the rate of contractions (22%-48%). CPA significantly increased the time of onset of arrhythmia (toxicity) induced by ouabain (1.2μM) when it was administered 10 min before ouabain was added in organ bath. Ouabain (1.2μM) alone produced arrhythmia at 7 min and either asystole or standstill at 22 min. CPA (8nM) increased the time required to produce arrhythmia to 27.5 min and prolonged beating atria to more than 63 min and prevented the occurrence of asystole. "nConclusion: CPA produces direct cardiac action, probably due the inhibition of cardiac Ca2+ channel and membrane hyperpolarization of atrium cells in guinea pig atria. Moreover, our results suggest that CPA may reduce the membrane conduction through inhibition of ionic channels, which decrease ouabain- induced toxicity.
The effect of D2 agonist versus D2 antagonist on the fear behavior in the male rats using plus-maze method: the prospective study
Sabzehkhah S,Vaezi Gh H,Bakhtiarian A,Salarian A
Tehran University Medical Journal , 2009,
Abstract: "nBackground: Dopaminergic is the most important neurotransmitter is fear. The dopaminergic mesolimbic pathway has essential role in excitable behavior, and it's role in Parkinson disease. The aim of this research in study, the effect of dopaminergic pathway in fear response. "n"nMethods: The elevated plus maze was used in combination with the percentage of time spent in the open arms of the maze (OAT%) and the percentage of entries into the open arms (OAE%) to measure fear. Increases in the OAT% and OAE% indicate an anxiolytic effect (reduction in anxiety), whereas decreases in the OAE% and OAT% indicate an anxiogenic effect. After five days, the rats were injected with saline and different doses of sulpiride and Bromocriptine."n"nResults: Results showed that intracerebroventricular administration of sulpiride, in the doses of 5, 20μg/rat and bromocriptine, D2 agonist in doses 65, 95μg/rat produced a significant effect comparing to sham groups (p<0.05). While intracerebroventricular administration of sulpiride 15, 10μg/rat, and bromocriptine 70, 80μg/rat, did not show any significant effect comparing with sham group (p<0.05). In the current research intracerebroventricular administration of sulpiride, D2 antagonist at the doses of 5, 10, 15, 20μg/rat and Bromocriptine, D2 agonist in the doses of 65, 70, 80, 95μg/rat were used and theire effect on the fear behavior were studied. "n"nConclusions: The possible effect of Dopaminergic system in the fear process, especially D2 receptor increase fear.
Blood mercury concentration: hypertensive versus normotensive adults
Mohaghegh A,Bakhtiarian A,Mohebitabar S,Forghani Z
Tehran University Medical Journal , 2008,
Abstract: Background: Hypertension is a very common and important disease. There are conflicting reports about mercury, a trace element, in the genesis of hypertension.Methods: In this study we examined the relationship between blood mercury levels and hypertension prevalence in a population-based sample of hypertensive and normotensive patients at the Shariati Hospital and the Tehran Heart Center in Tehran, Iran. A cross sectional sampling of 224 patients, aged 40-80 years, who participated in physical examinations conducted in 2006 were included in this study. The population that participated in this study were sample of hypertensive (n=112) which had essential hypertension and normotensive (n=112) patients which had no history of essential hypertension at the Shariati Hospital and the Tehran Heart Center in Tehran. The consent of all the patients were taken in the written form before the experiments. After selecting the patients the range of blood mercury levels were measured with Flame atomic absorption. Results: The range of blood mercury levels was 0 to 39.55 μg/dL. The mean blood mercury level of hypertensive patients (10.75 +1.23 μg/dL) was higher than that of normotensive patients (1.6 +1.02 μg/dL). There was a significant difference in the mean blood mercury level of normotensive men (1.74 +1.56 μg/dL) versus that of hypertensive men (11.9 +1.38 μg/dL). The mean blood mercury level of normotensive women (1.5 μg/dL) was also significantly different from that of hypertensive women (9.65 +0.53 μg/dL) (p<0.001).Conclusions: In this population, there is a positive relationship between the concentration of blood mercury levels and the presence of hypertension.
Lead and Cadmium Content of Korbal Rice in Northern Iran
A Bakhtiarian,M Gholipour,M Ghazi-Khansari
Iranian Journal of Public Health , 2001,
Abstract: Every year the entrance of factory wastes such as Shiraz Petrochemical Complex, Marvdasht sugar cube factory, and Charmineh factory, and other industrial units into the Kor and Sivand rivers and also the entrance of the Marvdasht and Zarghan city sewer system wastes into the Kor river and the use of their water in the cultivation of the rice has caused a significant increase in the lead and cadmium content of the grains of rice. To study the effect of the Kor river's pollution on the lead and cadmium content of the Korbal rice samples. The results of the study show that the lead and cadmium content of the grains of rice, 57 samples of 6 different types of rice were prepared in 19 different stations in Korbal region and also 18 samples of 6 different types of rice, cultivated with unpolluted water, were prepared in the National Institute of Rice Research (Gilan). A comparison of the pollution level of the Korbal and Gilan rice samples shows a significant difference and indicates the significant effect of the pollution of the river on the lead and cadmium content of the Korbal rice samples. The results of the study show that the lead and cadmium content of the hybrid, prolific, and late rice sample types were greater than that of unprolific and early types, such that the amount of these two elements were highest in the Hassani type (the lead content was 0.9625 ppm and the cadmium content was 0.0793 ppm), whereas the Gasroddashti type which blooms earlier and is long seeded has the lowest amount of these two elements.
Plasma Zinc Levels in Normotensive and Hypertensive Adults: A Comparative Study in Tehran Heart Center
S Aalami,V Nikoui,M Irani,A Bakhtiarian
Tehran University Medical Journal , 2012,
Abstract: Background: There are conflicting reports about zinc, a trace element, in the pathogenesis of hypertension and other cardiovascular diseases. The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of zinc in high blood pressure.Methods: We conducted this study on 80 patients with primary (idiopathic) hypertension and 80 normotensive people with similar age who attended to Tehran Heart Center between 2007 and 2008. We examined the effect of zinc concentration on blood pressure in both sexes in four age groups (41-50, 51-60, 61-70 and 71-80 years old). We measured plasma zinc concentration by atomic absorption.Results: The mean plasma zinc concentrations were 0.456±0.04 μg/ml and 0.551±0.055 μg/ml in patients with hypertension and in normotensive people, respectively, (P≤0.05). Nevertheless, the mean plasma zinc concentrations were 0.494 μg/ml and 0.486 μg/ml in men with and without hypertension, respectively. The mean plasma zinc concentrations of women with and without hypertension, respectively were 0.415 μg/ml and 0.596 μg/ml, showing a significant difference between two groups (P≤0.001). Moreover, there was a significant difference in plasma zinc concentration between hypertensive and normotensive people in 51 to 60 years age group (P≤0.05), but difference were not significant between other age groups.Conclusion: The results of this study revealed the relationship between the decrease in plasma zinc concentration and increase in blood pressure in women and in the men aged 51 to 60 years.
The teratogenic effects of alprazolam intake on rat fetus
Takzare N,Bakhtiarian A,Saeedi E,Nekoui V
Tehran University Medical Journal , 2011,
Abstract: "n 800x600 Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE AR-SA MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman","serif";} Background: Alprazolam belongs to benzodiazepine family and is increasingly used these days by pregnant women. It should be noticed that alprazolam exposure during pregnancy may have teratogenic effects on the fetus. Till now, limited studies have been conducted on the teratogenic effect of alprazolam. In this study, teratogenicity of alprazolam intake during pregnancy and its effects on fetus development was investigated. "n"nMethods: About 20 virgin rats of known age and weight were selected. After being pregnant, they were divided into four groups which contained five animals in each group: Negative and positive control groups. The case group exposed to 1 to 6 mg/kg/day alprazolam. The fetuses were first studied macroscopically regarding anomalies, and then histologically and histochemically to inspect the defects of tissue organogenesis."n"nResults: Our results show that there was significant difference especially at the dose 6 mg/kg weight and length of the cases compared to the control group. It appeared that at the dose of 6 mg/kg/day, cleft lip and palates were seen in the animals. The highest anomalies of limbs were also seen at the dose of 6 mg/kg/day. The statistical results indicate that alprazolam intake during the second half of pregnancy can lead to irreversible anomalies."n"nConclusion: Our results indicate that alprazolam in doses higher than 4 mg/kg/day might cause teratogenic effect. It seems that benzodiazepine therapy among pregnant woman would be better to avoid during the first trimester and multidrug regimens.
The Effects of Lamotrigine on the Acquisition and Expression of Morphine-Induced Place Preference in Mice
S. Pournaghash Tehrani,M. Daryaafzoon,A. Bakhtiarian,S. Ejtemaeemehr
Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences , 2009,
Abstract: The purpose of the present study is to determine the effects of the anticonvulsant drug, lamotrigine, on the acquisition and expression of morphine-induced place preference in mice. Lamotrigine prevents the release of glutamate from presynaptic neurons and inhibits action potential in postsynaptic area by inhibiting presynaptic sodium and calcium channels. Because of such properties, lamotrigine is used for reducing craving for and use of cocaine, alcohol and abused inhalant. So, to determine the effects of lamotrigine on opiates; specifically morphine, 180 male Swiss-Webster mice (20-35 g) were used in this study. Conditioned place preference, was assessed using a biased place conditioning paradigm. In a pilot study the effects of various doses of morphine (2.5, 5 and 10 mg kg -1), alone, or in combination with lamotrigine (1, 5 and 25 mg kg -1) on the place conditioning paradigm were examined. Animals were injected with the aforementioned doses of lamotrigine 60 min either prior to each morphine injections (acquisition) or prior to the start of the expression on the test day (expression). Administration of different doses of morphine (2.5, 5 and 10 mg kg -1) induced conditioned place preference whereas the administration of different doses of lamotrigine (1, 5 and 25 mg kg-1) failed to induce place preference. Acquisition and expression of morphine-induced CPP were reduced by lamotrigine at doses of 1, 5 and 25 mg kg-1 and 5 and 25 mg kg-1, respectively. Physiological mechanisms of action of lamotrigine and its potential therapeutic use in the treatment of drug-dependence are discussed.
Inhibition of Carrageenan-Induced Edema by Tripleurospermum Disciforme Extract in Rats
Azam Bakhtiarian,Shahram Ejtemaimehr,Sylvia Strobl,Said Pournaghash-Tehrani
Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences , 2007,
Abstract: In this research anti-inflammatory effect of Tripleurospermum disciforme extract was studied in rats. The effect of the extract against acute inflammation was studied by hind paw edema test. Intraperitoneal injection of different doses (15, 30, 45, 60, 90 and 120 mg kg-1) of Tripleurospermum disciforme which was followed by hind paw carageenan injection 1 h later were investigated. The resultant edema was quantified by measuring changes of diameter of hind foot. After 2, 3, 4 and 6 h we measured the anti-inflammatory effect of Tripleurospermum disciforme extract. Tripleurospermum disciforme extract with doses of 45, 60, 90 and 120 mg kg-1 and indomethacin 5 mg kg-1 showed significant effect. It is concluded that Tripleurospermum disciforme extract has anti-inflammatory effect against acute inflammation.
The effects of topiramate on the acquisition and expression of morphine-induced place conditioning and behavioral sensitization in mice
Fatemeh Farokhi,Seyed Said Pournaghash Tehrani,Hedayat Sahraei,Azam Bakhtiarian
Physiology and Pharmacology , 2007,
Abstract: Introduction: Topiramate is a newly anti-convulsant drug, which acts as NMDA glutamate receptor antagonist as well as the GABAB receptor agonist. It is used for physical dependence to opioids as well as cocaine, nicotine, alcohol and ecstasy dependence. In the present study attempts were made to further identification of the effects of topiramate on the acquisition and expression of morphine-induced conditioned place preference and behavioural sensitisation in mice. Methods: Male Swiss-Webster mice were used. Conditioned place preference and locomotion were assessed by an un-biased place conditioning paradigm and open filed methods. In a pilot study, the effects of morphine and topiramate on place conditioning paradigm as well as locomotion were assessed in morphine-nave animals for evaluation of effective and ineffective doses of the drugs. Different doses of topiramate were injected to the animals 30 min before each morphine injections (acquisition) or 30 min before the experiments were beginning on the test day. Results: Administration of different doses of morphine (0.5, 5 and 50 mg/kg) induced locomotor activity in the animals. In addition, morphine (1, 10 and 20 mg/kg) administration also induced place preference. On the other hand, administration of different doses of topiramate (20, 80 and 120 mg/kg) neither induced place preference nor altered animals’ activity. Topiramate administration (20 and 80 mg/kg) and (80 and 120 mg/kg) reduced the acquisition and expression of morphine-induced place preference, respectively. In addition, topiramate (20, 80 and 120 mg/kg) reduced the acquisition of morphine-induced behavioral sensitization where as the drug in dose 80 mg/kg enhanced the expression of morphine-induced behavioral sensitization. Conclusion: It can be concluded that topirmate administration interacts with the euphoric and locomotor properties of morphine and this can be considered in therapeutic usage of the drug.
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