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Susceptibility of Clinical Candida Species Isolates to Antifungal Agents by E-Test, Southern Iran: A Five Year Study
P Badiee,A Alborzi
Iranian Journal of Microbiology , 2011,
Abstract: Background and Objectives: The incidence of fungal infections in immunocompromised patients, especially by Candida species, has increased in recent years. This study was designed to identify Candida species and determine antifungal susceptibility patterns of 595 yeast strains isolated from various clinical specimens.Material and Methods: Identification of the isolates were determined by the API 20 C AUX kit and antifungal susceptibilities of the species to fluconazole, amphotericin B, ketoconazole, itraconazole, voriconazole, and caspofungin were determined by the agar-based E-test method.Results: Candida albicans (48%) was the most frequently isolated species, followed by Candida kruzei (16.1%), Candida glabrata (13.5%), Candida kefyr (7.4%), Candida parapsilosis (4.8%), Candida tropicalis (1.7%) and other species (8.5%). Resistance varies depending on the species and the respective antifungal agents. Comparing the MIC90 for all the strains, the lower MIC90 was observed for caspofungin (0.5 μg/ml). The MIC90 for all Candida species were 64 μg/ml for fluconazole, 0.75 μg/ml for amphotericin B, 4 μg/ml for ketoconazole, 4 μg/ml for itraconazole, and 2 μg/ml for voriconazole.Conclusions: Species definition and determination of antifungal susceptibility patterns are advised for the proper management and treatment of patients at risk for systemic candidiasis. Resistance to antifungal agents is an alarming sign for the emerging common nosocomial fungal infections.
Introducing Alphitobius Diaperinus, (Insecta: Tenebrionidae) as a New Intermediate Host of Hadjelia Truncata (Nematoda)
AR Alborzi,A Rahbar
Iranian Journal of Parasitology , 2012,
Abstract: Background: Hadjelia truncata is a nematode that causes lesions in the gizzard lining of pigeons, which may even lead to death. The aim of this study was to introduce Alphitobius diaperinus as a new intermediate host for Hadjelia truncata. Methods: H. truncata infection was identified in a pigeon flock in Ahvaz City, Khuzestan Province, Iran by performing fecal examination and autopsy. Adult and larval stages of beetles were collected from the litter of pigeon houses, and identified morphologically. The beetle larvae were cultured in a medium, containing feces of the infected pigeons. Nematode larval stages from naturally and experimentally (culturally) infected adult beetles were fed to two groups of pigeons.Results: The collected beetles were identified as Alphitobius diaperinus. Average length and width of the adult beetles were 6.31 mm and 2.88 mm respectively. Infection rates of naturally and experimentally infected beetles with larval stages of the nematode were 66.2% and 45.1% respectively. The adult nematodes collected from gizzards of experimentally infected pigeons were identified as H. truncata. Nematode infection rates in pigeons after feeding the infective larvae collected from naturally and experimentally infected beetles were 44.7% and 32.5 % respectively.Conclusion: A. diaperinus can serve as a natural intermediate host for H. truncata.
Prevalence of Latent Tuberculosis Infection in Low-Risk Children Using Tuberculin Skin Test: A Study in Shiraz
H Masoumi Asl,A Alborzi,B Pourabbas
Tehran University Medical Journal , 2012,
Abstract: Background: Tuberculin skin test (TST) is a readily available test for the diagnosis of latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI). This study was designed to evaluate LTBI in low-risk children aged 1-15 years.Methods: This cross-sectional study was performed in Shiraz, Iran, over six months during 2009. Totally, 1289 boys and girls were selected by stratified multistage random sampling from four municipality areas before allocating them to 15 groups. Inclusion criteria included age 1-15 years, documented history of BCG vaccination at birth, Iranian nationality and a healthy state of being. Children with acute febrile diseases, immunosuppression, on medication and immigrants were excluded. We considered a TST ≥ 10 mm of induration as positive.Results: The prevalence of LTBI in 1-15 years old children was 4.5%. The percentage was 3.5% in 1-5 year old, 4.1% in 6-10 year old and 5.7% in 11-15 year old children. The highest rate of infection was 9.8% in 15 year olds and the lowest was 2.2% in 3-year old children. Gender had no effect on LTBI rate. There is no significant difference of LTBI prevalence between four municipality areas.Conclusion: The prevalence of LTBI in this study was lower in comparison with other studies performed in Iran. Positive predictive value of TST decreases in low endemic areas for tuberculosis, especially in low-risk groups; therefore, most positive results are false-positive created by nonspecific reactions and infection with environmental mycobacteria. Hence, there is a need for new diagnostic tools that are easy and cost-effective.
"RELATION OF CHLAMYDIA PNEUMONIAE INFECTION TO DOCUMENTED CORONARY ARTERY DISEASE"
M.J. Zibaeenezhad,A. Amanat,A. Alborzi A. Obudi
Acta Medica Iranica , 2004,
Abstract: The possibility that infectious agents may trigger a cascade of reactions leading to inflammation, atherogenesis and vascular thrombotic events has recently been raised. Chlamydia pneumoniae is an infectious agent that has received the most attention with respect to coronary artery disease (CAD). To determine the relationship between C. pneumoniae and CAD, a case control study was conducted on 167 subjects (81 women and 86 men) who underwent coronary angiography at cardiac catheterization laboratories of our hospital. We measured IgG and IgA antibodies to C. pneumoniae antigens by ELISA method in baseline serum samples from 109 cases (mean age 57 years) who had at least one coronary artery lesion occupying 50% or more of the luminal diameter on coronary angiography and from 58 matched controls (mean age 50 years) who had documented normal coronary arteries. The prevalence of IgG and IgA antibodies to C. pneumoniae showed no case-control differences for IgG (82.6% vs 74.1%) or IgA (23.5% vs 16.7%). These results suggest that C. pneumoniae is not associated with documented CAD. More studies are needed to clarify the possible different effects of C. pneumoniae on atherosclerosis.
Acute Fulminant Fungal Sinusitis in Patients with Acute Leukemia
P Kordbacheh,P Badiee,A Alborzi,F Zaini
Iranian Journal of Public Health , 2008,
Abstract: "nBackground: Acute fulminant fungal sinusitis is a rapidly progressive disease with high mortality (50-80%) and occurring with increasing frequency in patients with acute leukemia. The purpose of the present study was early diagnosis of this le-thal infection."nMethods: In a cross-sectional study, 142 patients with hematological malignancies were studied immediately by initiation of chemotherapy to determine early clinical and radiological findings of invasive fungal sinusitis. This infection was con-firmed by pathological and mycological methods."nResults: Acute fulminant fungal sinusitis was diagnosed in 8 patients with acute leukemia. The most common isolated fungi was Aspergillus flavus (n= 5) followed by Aspergillus fumigatus (n= 2) and Rhizopus sp. (n= 1). Despite prompt surgical and medical therapy, the disease in our patients was very aggressive with a rapid clinical course and high mortality."nConclusion: The present report shows the poor prognosis of invasive fungal sinusitis in neutropenic patients; the necessity to take intensive preventive measures and the application of new diagnostic methods for early detection of fungal infection in these high risk patients.
Increased levels of IL-10, IL-12, and IFN- in patients with visceral leishmaniasis
Khoshdel, A.;Alborzi, A.;Rosouli, M.;Taheri, E.;Kiany, S.;Javadian, M.H.;
Brazilian Journal of Infectious Diseases , 2009, DOI: 10.1590/S1413-86702009000100010
Abstract: visceral leishmaniasis remains a serious public health problem in developing countries. cytokines have a crucial role in the pathogenesis of this disease. we evaluated plasma levels of il-10, il-12 and ifn- in 32 patients with active visceral lieshmaniasis, in 29 siblings of the patients and in 23 normal individuals in an endemic area to look for correlations between the clinical outcome of infection and the plasma cytokine levels. an analysis was made with a skin test and a quantitative sandwich enzyme immunoassay. data were analyzed with the mann whitney test and the kruskal wallis test. the cytokine levels were significantly higher in the patients than in the control groups. we concluded that normalization of the plasma level of ifn- can serve as a reliable parameter for considering the patient as cured.
Seroprevalence of Ehrlichia canis in dogs referred to Veterinary Hospital of Shahid Chamran University of Ahvaz, Iran
Avizeh, R.,Mosallanejad, B.,Razi Jalali, M.H.,Alborzi, A.R.
Archives of Razi Institute , 2010,
Abstract: Canine ehrlichiosis is a zoonotic rickettsial disease transmitted by ticks. In the present study, 198 companion dogs of different ages were examined for serum antibody detection against Ehrlichia canis by means of immunochromatography assay. The dogs were selected among referred cases to Veterinary Hospital of Shahid Chamran University of Ahvaz, Southwestern Iran from November 2008 to March 2010. The studied dogs were classified based on age, sex, breed, region and season. Nineteen of 198 serum samples (9.6%) had antibody against E. canis. Prevalence was significantly higher in adult dogs more than 3 year-old (16.18%) (P= 0.002) and 1 – 3 years (11.86%) (P= 0.016) compared with young dogs less than 1 year-old (1.41%). Prevalence was higher in male dogs (10.62%) than female dogs (8.24%), in the summer (11.32%) and west region (11.11%). There were not significant differences between the prevalence of infection and host gender, season and region (P>0.05). Typical morulae of E. canis were observed in monocytes of four infected dogs (2.02%). Five out of 24 (20.83%) of the thrombocytopenic dogs and 14 out of 174 (8.05%) of the non-thrombocytopenic dogs were positive for ehrlichiosis. Of 19 seropositive dogs, six (31.58%) had anemia, four (21.05%) hypoalbuminemia and five (26.32%) leukopenia. There were not statistically significant differences between hematological findings and prevalence of infection (P> 0.05). This is the first report indicating the presence of E. canis in companion dogs of Ahvaz district. However, the sources of infection in these dogs were not clear. Finally, the role of companion dogs in the epizootiology of E. canis infection needs to be further explored.
The Role of Salt in the Pathogenesis of Fructose-Induced Hypertension
Manoocher Soleimani,Pooneh Alborzi
International Journal of Nephrology , 2011, DOI: 10.4061/2011/392708
Abstract: Metabolic syndrome, as manifested by visceral obesity, hypertension, insulin resistance, and dyslipidemia, is reaching epidemic proportions in the Western World, specifically the United States. Epidemiologic studies suggest that the increased prevalence of metabolic syndrome directly correlates with an increase in the consumption of fructose, mainly in the form of high-fructose corn syrup. This inexpensive alternative to traditional sugar has been increasingly utilized by the food industry as a sweetener since the 1960s. While augmented caloric intake and sedentary lifestyles play important roles in the increasing prevalence of obesity, the pathogenesis of hypertension in metabolic syndrome remains controversial. One intriguing observation points to the role of salt in fructose-induced hypertension. Recent studies in rodents demonstrate that increased dietary fructose intake stimulates salt absorption in the small intestine and kidney tubules, resulting in a state of salt overload, thus setting in motion a cascade of events that will lead to hypertension. These studies point to a novel interaction between the fructose-absorbing transporter, Glut5, and the salt transporters, NHE3 and PAT1, in the intestine and kidney proximal tubule. This paper will focus on synergistic roles of fructose and salt in the pathogenesis of hypertension resulting from salt overload. 1. Metabolic Syndrome and Increased Fructose Consumption The increased incidence of metabolic syndrome, as manifested by obesity, insulin resistance, hypertension, and cardiovascular ailment has brought the question of modern lifestyles and diets to the forefront of public debate. Numerous discussions and investigations have focused on whether sedentary lifestyles, contemporary changes in diet, or both are responsible for the rise in obesity found throughout Westernized cultures. Proponents of the diet change argument point to the fact that our current diet is comprised of unbalanced nutrients, mainly too many carbohydrates, and has a total caloric intake that is well above our daily needs [1, 2]. Some anthropologists who subscribe to this view believe that early humans (hominids) consumed a significant amount of meat and possibly obtained most of their food from hunting [3]. Competing hypotheses within the same camp suggest that early humans may have consumed a plant-based diet in general [4], or that hunting and gathering possibly contributed equally to their diet [5]. The relative proportions of plant and animal foods in the diets of early humans (Paleolithic) probably varied between regions.
Association of H. pylori Virulence Genes CagA, VacA and Ure AB with Ulcer and Nonulcer Diseases in Iranian Population
Shohreh Farshad,Abdolvahab Alborzi,Amin Abbasian
Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences , 2007,
Abstract: To evaluate the association of virulence genes CagA, VacA and UreAB of H. pylori with the development of different gastric disorders, polymerase chain reaction was performed on H. pylori organisms isolated from biopsy samples of stomach of patients with ulcerative disease and nonulcerative disease. The difference between the groups was statistically significant (p<0.05) only for VacA gene. We detected 8 phenotypes, characterized as CagA+-VacA+-UreAB+ (phe 1), CagAˉ-VacAˉ-UreABˉ (phe 2), CagA+-VacA+- UreABˉ (phe 3), CagA+-VacAˉ-UreAB+ (phe 4), CagAˉ-VacA+-UreAB+ (phe 5), CagA+-VacA---UreABˉ (phe 6), CagAˉ-VacA+-UreABˉ (phe 7), CagA—VacAˉ-UreAB+ (phe 8). The prevalence of phenotype 1 was significantly higher in the patients with UD than that in the patients with NUD (p<0.05). These results suggest that in the population under our study, being infected by a H. pylori strain with the genotype CagA+-VacA+-UreAB+ may be associated with an increased risk of acquiring an ulcer disease.
A Survey on Ectoparasite Infestations in Companion Dogs of Ahvaz District, South-west of Iran
B Mosallanejad,AR Alborzi,N Katvandi
Journal of Arthropod-Borne Diseases , 2012,
Abstract: Background: The objective was to determine the prevalence of ectoparasite infestations in referred companion dogs to veterinary hospital of Shahid Chamran University of Ahvaz, from 2009 to 2010. Methods: A total of 126 dogs were sampled for ectoparasites and examined by parasitological methods. The studied animals were grouped based on the age (<1 year, 1–3 years and >3 years), sex, breed and regionResults: Thirty six out of 126 referred dogs (28.57%) were positive for external ectoparasites. The most common ectoparasites were Heterodoxus spinigera, which were recorded on 11 dogs (8.73%). Rhipicephalus sanguineus, Sarcoptes scabiei, Otodectes cynotis, Xenopsylla cheopis, Cetenocephalides canis, Cetenocephalides felis, Hip-pobosca sp. and myiasis (L3 of Lucilia sp.) were identified on 9 (7.14%), 7 (5.56%), 6 (4.76%), 3 (2.38%), 3 (2.38%), 2 (1.59%), 2 (1.59%) and one (0.79%) of the studied dogs respectively. Mixed infestation with two species of ectoparasites was recorded on 8 (6.35%). Prevalence was higher in male dogs (35.82%; 24 out of 67) than females (20.34%; 12 out of 59), age above 3 years (31.81%; 7 out of 22) and in the season of winter (30.95%; 13 out of 42), but the difference was not significant regarding to host gender, age and season (P>0.05). Conclusion: Apparently this is the first study conducted in companion dogs of Ahvaz District, South-west of Iran. Our results indicated that lice and ticks were the most common ectoparasites in dogs of this area. The zoonotic nature of some ectoparasites can be regard as a public health alert.
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