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DEVELOPING VOCABULARY IN TEACHING TURKISH AS A FOREIGN LANGUAGE: IDIOM TEACHING USING CONCEPTUAL KEYS TüRK EN N YABANCI D L OLARAK RET M NDE S Z VARLI INI GEL T RME: KAVRAMSAL ANAHTARLAR ARACILI IYLA DEY M RET M
Nihal ?ALIKAN
Turkish Studies , 2010,
Abstract: Idiom teaching has been a remarkable research area due to advancement of cognitive sciences and applied linguistics. The concept which claims that idioms are arbitrary has lost its validity under the light of Conceptual Metaphor Theory manifested by Lakoff and Johnson. According to the theory, linguistic metaphors are connected with the metaphoric thinking codes in human mind. For instance, the metaphors related to the concept of time in these sentences are connected with the conceptual metaphor “TIME IS MONEY”: “You spend your time in vain./Zaman n bo a harc yorsun. I devote my time which remains after the lessons to my family./Derslerden arta kalan zaman aileme ay r yorum. You should realize the value of your time./Zaman n iyi de erlendirmelisin. What else can we do to save the time?/Zaman kazanmak i in ba ka ne yapabiliriz? We shouldn’t vaste our time./Zaman kaybetmeyelim. I don’t want to take your time anymore./Daha fazla zaman n z almayay m.” This kind of conceptual clusters are available for idioms as well. Following this vein, researchers have obtained encouraging data showing the effectiveness of raising metaphoric awareness in idiom teaching. This kind of research is limited in Turkish applied linguistics literature. This article aims to introduce the Conceptual Metaphor Theory, and make suggestions on teaching idioms using an educational model based on the theory. Therefore, we will draw a framework about somatic idioms since these idioms are used frequently in daily language, and offer some exercises which can be used in classroom activities. Bili sel bilimler alan nda elde edilen kazan mlar n uygulamal dilbilime aktar lmas sürecinde dikkat eken al ma alanlar ndan biri de deyim retimidir. Deyimlerin nedensizlik temelinde ekillendi i, bu nedenle de her birinin kendi ba na ve daha ok ezbere dayal olarak renilmesi gerekti ini savunan anlay , ilk defa George Lakoff ve Mark Johnson taraf ndan sistemli bi imde ortaya konan Kavramsal Metafor Teorisi’nin nda ge erlili ini yitirmi tir. Kavramsal Metafor Teorisi’ne g re dilsel metaforlar do uran, insan zihnindeki metaforik dü ünce kodlar d r. S z gelimi “Zaman n bo a harc yorsun. Derslerden arta kalan zaman aileme ay r yorum. Zaman n iyi de erlendirmelisin. Zaman kazanmak i in ba ka ne yapabiliriz? Zaman kaybetmeyelim. Daha fazla zaman n z almayay m.” gibi dilsel ifadelerin arka plan nda zaman kavram alan n n paraya ili kin kavram alan ile anla lmas n sa layan ZAMAN PARADIR kavramsal metaforu vard r. B yle bir kavramsal beklenme, deyimler i in de s z konusudur. Bu dü ünc
THE STATEMENT OF BU üLKE: AN ANALYSIS OF CEM L MER ’S SYNTACTIC STYLE BU üLKE’N N CüMLES : CEM L MER ’ N CüMLE üSLUBU üZER NE B R NCELEME
Nihal ?ALIKAN
Turkish Studies , 2010,
Abstract: This study deals with syntactic stylistic features of Cemil Meri ’s writings on the basis of Bu ülke which can be considered one of the distinctive works of the author. Results obtained from the study show that Meri used nominal, inverse, short, interrogative, and explanatory sentences as a stylistic element in Bu ülke. Using these elements he created a metaphoric language, and in return metaphor helped to organize and integrate these elements which seemed independent at the first glance. Bu yaz da Cemil Meri ’in cümle üslubu üzerinde durulmaktad r. Yazar n cümle üslubunu en iyi yans tan eserlerinden biri olmas sebebiyle inceleme, Bu ülke adl eserden hareketle ger ekle tirilmi tir. Buna g re Bu ülke’de isim cümleleri, k sa ve devrik cümleler ile soru ve a klama cümleleri bir üslup zelli i olarak dikkat ekmektedir. al mada s z konusu cümlelerin kullan m zellikleri üzerinde ayr nt lar yla durularak Meri ’ in metaforik bir dil kulland , metaforun da n k gibi g rünen bu kullan mlar birle tiren bir unsur oldu u sonucuna var lm t r.
U ak’ta Ailelerin Bula k Makinesi Talebini Etkileyen Fakt rlerin kili Tercih Modeli le Analizi
?adan ?ALIKAN
Selcuk Universitesi Sosyal Bilimler Enstitusu Dergisi , 2009,
Abstract: Fast increase in world population partly due to improvements in health and economic conditions has brought about the risingdemand for natural resources. This is especially true for water resources, which bear critical importance for life. In addition topopulation increase, climatic changes with more manifest impacts recently due to global warming caused an increase in thepressure on water resources. In our country, meeting water demand for domestic use, particular in populated cities, has been aprimary problem for both central and local administrators.Paying attention to saving water shall both help in more efficient use of water resources and decrease the need for newinvestments for water supply. When considered form this point of view, becoming widespread of dishwasher usage in housesshall make important contributions to water saving. In particular new generation dishwashers which spend less energy and waterpresent important advantages for solving the problem of expenses on water. A household with 4 members spends 84-126 liters ofwater if it washes its dishes in the sink; the same household uses some 12 liters of water if it uses a dish washer. This means some26-40 tons of saved water for this household in one year. Therefore, usage of dishwashers, beside other water saving devices, has tobecome more widespread in our country. Increasing this ratio shall make important contributions to solving water problem.The purpose of this paper is to analyze the ownership of dishwashers, which is among the durable household appliances of whichusage is encouraged as water resources become less able to meet the human needs. This paper is the first study which deals with thedemand for dish washers in economic terms and with econometric estimation method.As a result of the research, observation and evaluations on dishwasher ownership, it has been concluded that the dishwasherdemand of a household can be a function of household income, level of education, dishwasher ownership ratio in the householdsin close environment, and employment status of the housewife. In the research, the education level of the breadwinner was takenas an indicator of the education level of the household.In this paper, the factors which affect dishwasher ownership of households have been examined by using the survey dataapplied to urban areas of U ak province. In the research, the Linear Probability Model and the Logit Model, which are among thebinary dummy dependent variable models, are used to make econometric estimations. Dependent variable of the model is binaryqualitative variable. If the d
GEOGRAPHY OF A HIDDEN CULTURAL HERITAGE: CAMEL WRESTLES IN WESTERN ANATOLIA
Vedat ?ALIKAN
Journal of International Social Research , 2009,
Abstract: The study deals with camel wrestles observed in Turkey and the distribution of which is limited only to Western Anatolia. Held in winter in about fifty settlements surrounding the Aegean and Mediterranean coasts, camel wrestling organizations are still important social entertainments largely of the rural society. The distribution of camel wrestling organizations in Anatolia, the choices of location for wrestles and the factors affecting these phenomena were described with the study. Furthermore, the economic and cultural functions of camel wrestles are evaluated. According to the findings based on researches and examinations in fifteen settlements pertaining to camel wrestles, the presence of economic and cultural relations and interaction have been detected in a region with specific boundaries. In this environment, which may be called ‘the Cultural Region of Camel Wrestles’, wrestling events provide new opportunities as a cultural value also in terms of tourism. This part of Anatolia displays
ON LITERARY THEORY-1: PRELIMINARY ORIENTATIONS
Adem ?ALIKAN
Journal of International Social Research , 2010,
Abstract: In this article have been done the preliminary orientations on literary theory as one of subbranches of literary science. Literary theory has been dealt with under the some titles by moving from the style of scientific approach, and as possible, has been tried to fill the theoretical gap on that if what the literary theory in our country was be. In this context, it has been covered in detail the issues such as the literary theory concept, its definition, subject and function, including theory concept. (It is intended to that other matters relating to literary theory is be addressed in the continuation of this article.)
A THEORICAL APPROACH TO THE TURKISH POETRY OF THE REPUBLIC ERA WITH ITS GUIDELINES
Adem ?ALIKAN
Journal of International Social Research , 2010,
Abstract: In this article, the phase between 1923 and 1960 years of the Turkish poetry of Republic era has been classified in own with movement from some criteria, and literary movement and/or literary movements as Seven Torchests, Free Versests / Social Realists, Garips / First News, Castlests and Second News, including poets that composed their works as independent, have been dealt with as theorical with their representatives and as generations. Turkish poetry of this era has continued both as breaking gradually its relation with past in direction the dominant power of period and as be frequently opening to external ideological effects and to Western literature, culture and poetry in way literary movement or literary movements that founded on opposite thoughts at each other. In this era poets that have different poetry opinions have put forth the views on poetics as individual or collective too. In addition onward from 1950s poetic veins after 1960 also have begun to become clear. Turkish poetry of this era is full with the peerless examples of good Turkish.
EFFECTS OF MIGRATIONS TO BURSA ON THE PROCESS OF SQUATTING: SQUATTER HOUSES ON THE SLOPES OF ULUDA
Vedat ?ALIKAN,Cengiz AKBULAK
Journal of International Social Research , 2010,
Abstract: In Turkey, there is a rapid population increase and urbanization process particularly in cities, where industrial activities are concentrated, also under the influence of migrations. Bursa is one of the cities in which the relationship between industrialization and urbanization can be detected very clearly. The population masses oriented to the city under the influence of great industrial investments increased house deficit, thereby creating a breaking point in the development of the city. Accordingly, there appeared a belt of squatter houses surrounding the city on the slopes of Uluda . The examination of the belt of squatter houses distributed along a line of approximately 20 km on the slopes of Uluda , bordering Bursa in the south, constitutes the subject of this study. The illegal construction in the place concerned followed the expansion of the city eastwards and carries on expanding by creating new settlements along the slopes. The data obtained depending on the questionnaires applied in the sample neighborhoods put forward the periodical relationship of phenomenon of squatting with migrations in Bursa and the reasons for migration. Clear differences were detected among sample neighborhoods in terms of the process of squatting. The study, in which the ongoing illegal construction on the slopes is currently determined, demonstrates that the pressure on forest land and natural sites is increasingly continuing.
The Availability of Drama Method in Social Sciences Lesson (Sample Lesson Plan)
Engin KARADA?,Nihat ?ALIKAN
Journal of Kirsehir Education Faculty , 2006,
Abstract: An individual has interaction with the surroundings and tries to find a place for her/himself in the society from the time he/she is born. He wants to get involved in a group, to find acceptance, to like the people around and to be liked by them. For his, he has to learn the rules of the society he is living in and obey them. He learns these rules up to school age within the family and the surroundings. One of the duties that educational institutions have is to educate a child as a good citizen. Examining our educational program, we can see that the lesson that gives students this knowledge and behavior is Social Sciences. For these reasons, the main goal of this study is the availability of drama method that students are active in through social sciences lessons.
Body Language in Drama
Nihat ?ALIKAN,Engin KARADA?
Journal of Kirsehir Education Faculty , 2005,
Abstract: Drama is an act continuing life-long of a human and is an art of living. Owing to drama a child can gain the apportunity of practising and learning his life in games that he likes most. Today drama is scrutinized in four subtitles as creative, educational, psychodrama and sociodrama. The concepts about drama can be explained as creaticeness, metaksis, interraction, action, activity and empathy.Drama is the explanation of a sense or thought by motion, mimic, gesture and in words. In other words it is the animation of a situation or a subject using body language, reflecting by living, transforming into life.By using the body language consciously and effectively, it has an important function at dramatizing the events, getting students’ attention in education, concretizing abstract expressions, at stres accent and increasing the understandability of messages.Pantomime technic in drama method has a great importance at using the activities and human’s world consciously and animating the expressions and events. Because a teacher’s acting biology is importatnt an educational period.In this study related to drama expression, the importance of creative, educational, psychodrama, sociodrama, body language and pandomime technic in educational period has been tried to explaired.
Influences of presowing treatments on the germination and emergence of fig seeds (Ficus carica L.)
alikan, Oguzhan;Mavi, Kazim;Polat, Aytekin;
Acta Scientiarum. Agronomy , 2012, DOI: 10.1590/S1807-86212012000300009
Abstract: seed germination of fig seeds is important for obtain seedlings with high variability in breeding studies, and for producing mosaic virus-free seedlings. this experiment was carried out to evaluated the effects of several treatments (priming with water for 24h, ga3 at 500 and 1000 ppm for 24h, 3% kno3 for 24h, and stratification at 4°c for 7, 14 and 21 days) on seed germination and emergence of 'bursa siyah?' and 'sar?lop' fig cultivars. the application of ga3 increased the germination and emergence of these fig seeds. the highest percentages of germination and emergence were obtained with ga3 at 500 or 1000 ppm for both cultivars. the seed germination and emergence of the cultivar 'bursa siyah?' were higher than observed with the 'sar?lop'. the application of ga3 at 500 ppm or 1000 ppm reduced the time to germination and emergence from the seeds of both cultivars. in summary, the ga3 treatments showed efficacy to overcome the dormancy of these fig seeds.
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