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The Effect of C02, Sweat, Chemical Vapours and Air on Simulium ornatum: Implications for Control
AA Opoku
West African Journal of Applied Ecology , 2008,
Abstract: Studies on the response of the blackfly Simulium ornatum s.l (Diptera Simuliidae) to carbon dioxide (CO2), acetone, 1-octen-3-ol and air was conducted in the laboratory using a Y-tube olfactometer. The blackflies were found to exhibit a high degree of activity in the olfactometer and responded to the various odours. The results showed that CO2 and l-octen-3-ol were attractive to the flies at low concentrations (< 1% CO2 & < 2.5% 1-octen-3-ol) and repellent at high concentrations (> 2% CO2 & > 4% 1- octen-3-ol). Humidified air was found to be an attractant, and dry air a repellent. Acetone at low concentrations (< 0.2%) did not appear to have any effect, while at higher concentrations (> 1%) it repelled. The results indicate that the use of attractive odours could be beneficial in reducing vector biting of hosts if used in areas where the host is present. West African Journal of Applied Ecology Vol. 13 2008: pp. 39-44
The ecology and biting activity of blackflies (Simuliidae) and the prevalence of onchocerciasis in an agricultural community in Ghana
AA Opoku
West African Journal of Applied Ecology , 2006,
Abstract: Field studies on the ecology and biting activity of blackflies (Simuliidae), as well as an assessment of the prevalence status of Onchocerciasis diseases were conducted in a rural forest area of Ghana. It was observed that the blackfly vector Simulium damnosum s.l was the most abundant and widely distributed of the species encountered. The pH and flow rate of the breeding sites were significant factors influencing the distribution of the flies. The pattern of biting exhibited by S. damnosum s.l was bi-modal with morning and late afternoon peak activity. The savanna forms of the S. damnosum s.l were found to occur in the area representing 0.0–0.26% of the catch. The disease is endemic with the prevalence rate ranging between 0.0001 and 12.9% in the district and the frontline communities having infection rates exceeding 60%.
Measuring Trade Costs in Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS)  [PDF]
Charles Ackah, Festus Ebo Turkson, Kwadwo Opoku
Modern Economy (ME) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/me.2013.41007

In this paper, we measure trade costs for ECOWAS countries and infer their impact on trade flows. The paper applies an unconditional general equilibrium trade model consistent with the Ricardian and heterogeneous firms’ models of trade to estimate a trade cost equation to obtain the tariff equivalent trade cost measure for ECOWAS countries. The method expresses the trade cost parameters as a function of observable trade data. We find that over the period 1980-2003, the cost of trading within SSA was the highest, compared to other regional groups, at an average tariff equivalent of 271.5 percent. On average ECOWAS countries traded with their trading partners at a tariff equivalent trade cost of 268.2 percent, higher than countries from other regional blocs within and out of SSA. With regards to trade flow involving ECOWAS countries, estimates of tariff equivalent trade costs indicates that on average ECOWAS countries traded among each other at a lower cost than with other trading partners from economic blocs out of ECOWAS. This could be attributed to the positive impact of regional trade integration efforts. Over the years especially since 2000, ECOWAS seemed to have promoted intra-ECOWAS trade especially with regards to export of manufactures. With regards to countries within ECOWAS, intra-ECOWAS trade costs with Cote d’Ivoirewere the lowest at an average tariff equivalent trade cost of 138.5 percent and this was significantly lower thanGhana,NigeriaandBenin.

Factors Inhibiting the Use of Bamboo in Building Construction in Ghana: Perceptions of Construction Professionals  [PDF]
Desmond Opoku, Joshua Ayarkwa, Kofi Agyekum
Materials Sciences and Applications (MSA) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/msa.2016.72008
Abstract: There is a growing concern of the integration of bamboo as a material into the building construction industry even though its potential is underscored. Certain factors serve as barriers to the use of bamboo in building construction. This study employed a questionnaire survey which sought to investigate the perceptions of 84 Architects and 100 Senior Managers of small and medium scale Building construction firms on the factors that influence the use of bamboo in building construction. Relative Importance Index and Chi-squared tests were performed to identify the significant factors that influence the use of bamboo in building construction. The results showed that the building contractors considered nonspecification of bamboo for building projects by Architects, inadequate bamboo processing companies in Ghana and insufficient cooperation from government to be the key factors which influence the use of bamboo for building construction. The results further showed that the Architects considered lack of knowledge in bamboo detailing, limited knowledge of bamboo and lack of expertise to use it, and inadequate bamboo processing companies to be the key influential factors inhibiting the use of bamboo in building construction. The results are of value to the construction industry as it identifies significant factors which influence the usage of bamboo in building construction. Promotion of bamboo usage in building construction should be given the needed publicity to create the awareness of its potential as a building material.
Protecting Mining Environments from Blasting through Impact Prediction Studies  [PDF]
Bright Oppong Afum, Afia Fima Baah Opoku
Journal of Geoscience and Environment Protection (GEP) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/gep.2018.65011
Abstract: A surface gold mine wishes to develop a new pit (Pit A) as part of its mining schedules. The proposed pit outline is about 300 m to the closest community. Blasting operations in Pit A would potentially create undesirable environmental impacts including fly rocks, ground vibrations and air blasts to neighbouring communities. Integration of proper planning tools or protocols for blasting at Pit A is the major concern of the Mine. Due to safety reasons, management wishes to explore the best blasting protocols that will restrain any blast impact to a 250 m buffer from the proposed pit outline. The Kuz-Ram fragmentation model was used to generate the optimal geometric parameters required for blasting at Pit A. Ground vibration, air blasts and fly rock impact prediction models were used to estimate the associated blast impacts to the neighbouring community. The predictions were made for blasting the oxides, transition and fresh rock formations to be encountered in Pit A. The predicted ground vibration and air blast levels were compared with the Ghanaian regulatory threshold of 2 mm/s. The predicted maximum fly rock distance (235 m) from the pit outline is within the established 250 m clearance buffer zone. The geometric drill and blast parameters and associated single-hole firing charges were used in the prediction models. The predicted results from this study will assist the surface gold mine to properly execute safe blasting operations with minimal impact to the neighbouring community. Due to known scattering of NONEL explosives in initiation systems, electronic initiation systems are recommended for blasting in the new pit.
Knowledge and practices of emergency contraception among Ghanaian women
B Opoku, F Kwaununu
African Journal of Reproductive Health , 2011,
Abstract: The use of emergency contraceptives (EC) to prevent unwanted pregnancies when effective contraception has not been used is universally acknowledged. A study looked at the knowledge and practices of emergency contraception in 476 women in the reproductive age in Ghana. Knowledge and usage of EC applied to 57% and 41% of participants, respectively. Knowledge was independent of age (p=0.26), marital status (p=0.14) and level of education (p=0.21). Drugs (85.6%), herbal preparations (14.4%) and douching (43%) were used for emergency contraception. Drugs used included the combined Pill-24.0%, Postinor-28.5% and Norethisterone-43%. Only 44% correctly used drugs as EC. There is a high level of knowledge about EC as well as usage in the country. There is general misuse of norethisterone as EC. There is no knowledge in this study population that intrauterine device can be used as EC.
Prevalence of genital Chlamydia and Gonococcal infections in at risk women in the Kumasi metropolis, Ghana
BK Opoku, YA Sarkodie
Ghana Medical Journal , 2010,
Abstract: Objective: To study the prevalence of genital chlamydia and gonococcal infections in women at risk of acquiring sexually transmitted infections in the Kumasi metropolis, Ghana. Design: Structured interviews and clinical examination of participants and obtaining vaginal swabs to test for gonorrhoea and chlamydia infections. Participants: Women aged between 18-35 years (inclusive) with a history of having at least 3 sexual acts per week and having had at least 2 sex partners in the previous 3 months and were willing to be part of the study. Results: One thousand and seventy (1070) women participated in the study. Genital chlamydia infection was found in 4.8% of participants whilst gonococcal infection was found in 0.9% of participants. Conclusion: The prevalence of genital chlamydia and gonococcal infections was low in these at-risk women. The prevalence is also lower than reported in other female populations in the country.
Ear, Nose and Throat Manifestations in Geriatrics
J Opoku-Buabeng
Journal of Science and Technology (Ghana) , 2012,
Abstract: The aim of this study is to present my observation of the common ear, nose and throat conditions in geriatrics, i.e. in the old age patients. This is a retrospective study analysis of 417 geriatric patients that presented at the Ear, Nose and Throat (ENT) clinic at the Komfo Anokye Teaching Hospital between January 2006 and December 2010. The diagnosis in each patient was based on the history, clinical findings and investigations done on each patient at the time of presentation. The patients were aged between 65 and 93 years with a mean age of 74.6 years. The main presentation of these geriatric patients were otological conditions in 209 (50.1%), rhinological conditions in 118 (28.3%) and then pharyngolaryngological conditions in 90 (21.6%). Some of the common conditions include presbyacusis (16.7%), cerumen obturans (15.3%), allergic rhinitis (14.9%), pharyngolaryngitis (9.8%), rhinosinusitis (8.2%), foreign body in throat (7.0%) etc. With the current improvement in life style, the life expectancy is supposed to be increased. In effect the otolaryngologist is going to be affronted with these challenges.
Non-book instructional materials usage in Ghanaian primary schools
NAA Opoku-Asare
Journal of Science and Technology (Ghana) , 2004,
Abstract: This study adopted the qualitative research approach to identify, describe and explain the underlying issues pertaining to how Ghanaian primary school teachers use non-book instructional materials to achieve the curriculum objectives outlined in the lessons they teach and whether this is significantly affected by the nature and date of teacher training. The paper defines the type of materials teachers use; the frequency, pattern, mode and extent of use; and, their impact on pupil learning. The study involved observation of classroom activities and nearly 100 lessons in 11 subjects in 50 classrooms in six primary schools within the Kumasi metropolis. Blackboards, flash cards, real objects, charts and rulers emerged as the most regularly used teaching materials in all the schools. The blackboard was found to be the most frequently and significantly used teaching resource in all subjects and class levels. The most significant and variety of materials are utilised in Mathematics. The study reveals that classroom use of instructional materials is significantly related to the period in which a teacher was trained, the class level at which they function, the subject they teach and, the age level and maturation of their pupils. Journal of Science and Technology Vol.24(2) 2004: 106-115
The Yutong Bus: Representations of a New Ghanaian Political Metaphor
Eric Opoku Mensah
Theory and Practice in Language Studies , 2012, DOI: 10.4304/tpls.2.1.118-125
Abstract: Over last decade, the Ghanaian political discourse has been characterized by insults. This has been of major concern to media commentators, civil society, and other stakeholders in governance in Ghana. One fundamental key in Ghana’s political discourse has been the use of metaphor. Using Lakoff and Johnson’s (1980) theory of metaphor, the study examines a bus metaphor in recent Ghanaian political speeches. The analysis of the metaphor reveals that the use of metaphors can minimize direct vilification in Ghanaian political communication. The analysis also demonstrates that features of conceptual sources can be manipulated by politicians to achieve positive rhetorical ends. Furthermore, the study supports the fact that positive or negative associations of source domain over a period of time can become a natural part of any given source domain The study has implication(s) for the relationship between political language and human cognition.
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