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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 1572 matches for " ?vorovi? Jelena "
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Gypsy ethnic socialization in Serbia
Glasnik Etnografskog Instituta SANU , 2005, DOI: 10.2298/gei0553035c
Abstract: Based on original fieldwork among Gypsies in Serbia, this paper explores Gypsy ethnic socialization and argues that Gypsy social isolation, to some extent, is self-imposed through the acceptance of their traditions. Close kin, particularly parents, are found to be the primary socializing agents of Gypsy children. Gypsy children have little or no contact with children from other ethnic groups. A crucial aspect of Gypsy socialization is an emphasis on the distinction between non-Gypsies and Gypsies; that is, between gadje and Roma: Contact with gadje, especially sexual, is considered polluting. Their social isolation results also from their traditional refusal to accept, and become a part of the larger hierarchy of their host populations. The Gypsy tradition of endogamy helped individual Gypsies to survive, leave descendants, and transmit their traditions to them.
A new approach to magic
Glasnik Etnografskog Instituta SANU , 2006, DOI: 10.2298/gei0654173c
Abstract: This paper uses the example of traditional practices of magic to suggest ways to incorporate cultural behaviors within the evolutionary paradigm. The first suggestion is to restrict hypotheses to only identifiable variables. This means avoiding the temptation of following the nonevolutionary social sciences in the practice of basing explanations on unverifiable guesses about what beliefs (or memes in evolutionary jargon) may or may not inhabit people's brains. In contrast with previous explanations that magical practices result from beliefs and memes whose primarily purpose is to reduce anxiety, we propose that magic is a form of communication that promotes cooperation and often avoids anti-social behavior. This effect of increased cooperation could explain why traditional forms of magic have probably existed and had significant positive consequences for the participants. To be effective as a means of communication, magical rituals must specify both the content of the message and the receiver of the message. Although the content of the communicative message differs with different types of magic, all magical acts serve a purpose to influence the behavior of the party involved and that is the most significant identifiable effect of such behavior. An advantage of this approach over many previous explanations of magic is that because it focuses on identifiable phenomena, the definitions and explanations used in this approach can be falsified.
Reproductive behavior, ethnicity and socio-economic status a comparison of two Serbian Gypsy groups
Glasnik Etnografskog Instituta SANU , 2004, DOI: 10.2298/gei0452147c
Abstract: Based on original fieldwork in Serbia, this paper elucidates and contrasts the reproductive behavior of typically poor Gypsies with a group of much wealthier Gypsies living in a Serbian village. This paper will test two hypotheses: 1) Gypsy reproductive behavior is a result of their ethnic traditional strategy, and/or 2) Gypsy reproduction is a result of low status and being poor. This paper explores the relationship between socioeconomic status, reproductive behavior and ethnicity.
The ancient Greek promiscuity
Glasnik Etnografskog Instituta SANU , 2002, DOI: 10.2298/gei0351043c
Abstract: Non-reproductive sex, including homosexuality, is a by-product: such behavior would be a consequence of selection for male sexual eagerness due to the significantly less parental investment in the past. Here we argue that the key element in restraining such behavior is ancestral: traditions that discourage promiscuity. The ancient Greece is selected to illustrate this thesis.
Impact of paternal investment among women in Sandzak
Glasnik Etnografskog Instituta SANU , 2008, DOI: 10.2298/gei0802159c
Abstract: An evolutionary model of facultative reproductive strategies explains much of women's life history strategy in terms of the absence or presence of their fathers and parental investment they made. This paper assesses direct paternal investment and behavioral outcomes in 164 women in the Sandzak region, using human behavioral ecology approach, with a special emphasis on female reproductive strategy.
Women's autonomy and domestic violence in the Sand ak region: The influence of religion and region
Glasnik Etnografskog Instituta SANU , 2008, DOI: 10.2298/gei0801145c
Abstract: This paper seeks to shed light on a specific aspect of domestic violence wife beating in the Sand ak region, southwestern Serbia. The paper draws upon data collected in the course of a study on women's autonomy in the region. Violence against women in this area is closely linked to the institution of marriage, where related norms and cultural practices reinforce women's powerlessness, exposing them to domestic violence.
Gypsy stories: Narrative as a teaching stratagem
Glasnik Etnografskog Instituta SANU , 2010, DOI: 10.2298/gei1001185c
Abstract: This paper discusses the performance of narratives as adaptive cultural beha-viors among Gypsies in Ma va county, western Serbia. Storytelling is a universal activity and may well be oldest of the arts. It has always provided a vehicle for the expression of ideas, particularly in societies relying on oral tradition. Gypsies are present in Serbia since the Middle Ages, living within a larger Serbian culture as a minority group. Ma va, an agriculturally rich county in western Serbia, is a place where local Gypsy traditions are still alive and which help distinguish between Gypsy subgroups and the larger Serbian society. The stories analyzed are part of a collec-tion made from several different Gypsy groups exhibiting varying degrees of influence from Serbian culture. Gypsies in Serbia have no written literature, but possess a rich and varied storytelling tradition delivered by word of mouth through the generations. Their stories bear testimony to the evolutionarily important mecha-nisms employed by Gypsies to make their way in the world. Gypsy stories concern many aspects of the relationship between themselves and other social groups, both in the past and the present. At the same time, the stories deal with universal adaptive problems, such as origin/ethnicity, kinship and mate acquisition. By applying the concepts and folk knowledge from their own culture, Gypsies have managed to provide for themselves the guidelines to overcome these problems within a par-ticular environment. Thus it is that these stories reflect both human universals and cultural peculiarities - by utilization of localized cultural solutions to adaptive problems. The success Gypsies have achieved in surviving harassment, and their ability to sustain themselves and their cultures despite social rejection can be attributed, in part, to the power of the traditional stories to influence the behavior of those who hear them. For the Gypsies, telling and listening to the stories could be considered adaptive behavior: disseminating traits that were presumably successful in the past. These stories replicate and describe the environment in which the Gypsy ancestors struggled to survive. As a consequence, the narratives and the Gypsy real world are compatible in many constant and predictable ways, and many Gypsies are hence able to use narrative information/knowledge as a model for proper behavior which helps them to negotiate their social environment in their efforts to survive and reproduce.
Gypsy dragon: An evolutionary approach to narratives
Glasnik Etnografskog Instituta SANU , 2007, DOI: 10.2298/gei0701205c
Abstract: This paper will attempt to explain Serbian Gypsy oral narratives by applying concepts drawn from evolutionary psychology. The Gypsy story will illustrate how various narrative characteristics are used by Gypsies to employ social knowledge on local surroundings to better serve fitness solutions.
Juvenile marriages, child-brides and infant mortality among Serbian gypsies
Glasnik Etnografskog Instituta SANU , 2011, DOI: 10.2298/gei110512001c
Abstract: Gypsies/Roma make up the largest minority in Europe. Roma communities tend to be segregated and characterized by poverty, unemployment, poor education, and poor quality housing. So far, the European strategy for Gypsy/Roma integration proved insufficient because it fails to account to the normative nature of the isolationist and ethnocentric nature of certain elements of Gypsy culture, as well as the deep and mutual distrust between Gypsies and non-Gypsies within European countries. In Serbia, the Gypsy population tends to suffer disproportionately from higher rates of poverty, unemployment, illiteracy, and disease. At the same time, the Serbian Gypsy women average an infant mortality rate between 10-20%. For most of these girls/women, endogamous, arranged marriages are negotiated at an early age, usually without their consent. Among these women, a certain level of infant mortality is “expected”, following an underinvestment in some children manifested in their care, feeding, and the response to their illnesses. These juvenile arranged marriages, subsequent reproduction and child mortality are culturally self-sufficient and hence pose a challenge for international human rights: while many Gypsy girls/women are being denied the right to choose whom and when to marry, the Gypsy community itself openly accepts juvenile arranged marriage as a preservation strategy and means of cultural, economic, and societal maintenance and independence. Although efforts to improve education, health, living conditions, encourage employment and development opportunities for Gypsies/Roma are essential, these objectives cannot be attained without directing the changes needed within Gypsy/Roma culture itself. The initial point for change must come from an increased sense of responsibility among the Gypsies themselves.
Son preference among the historical Sand ak Muslim population
voroviJelena,Nikoli? Kosta
Glasnik Etnografskog Instituta SANU , 2012, DOI: 10.2298/gei1202055c
Abstract: This paper attempts to explain parental son preferences among historical Muslim population in the Sand ak region, southwestern Serbia. The paper draws upon data collected in the course of anthropological fieldwork studies in the region. The fieldwork was performed among Muslim and Christian families in Serbian rural area of Sand ak, measuring maternal fitness in relation to several variables. The data set comes from 120 women born between 1880-1924, representing so a historical demographic data based on individual and lineage records. These data were complemented with official records from Archive of Novi Pazar, whenever possible. In this Serbian rural area, land is still considered as an abundant resource, useful in establishing a family, livestock or agriculture. In the past, in spite of yearly fluctuations in production, lands and labor constituted a stable source of wealth from generation to generation. In this study, the data include the socio-economic status of each woman, assigned according to her husband’s family economic status: land-ownership vs. landless. This represents differences in resource availability in terms of nutrition, wealth and workload among these women. As the results show, the Muslim families, on average, left more surviving descendants through sons, in contrast with their Christian counterparts. The basic research question, then, is why? Furthermore, what were the impacts of particular behaviors on reproductive and lineage success, under particular social and ecological conditions? In this sample, regarding the Muslim families, the family structure was/is traditional and stratified, characterized by a large disparity in the status of males and females. Patrilineal inheritance, the concentration of wealth and power in males and the social restriction of women all characterize even today this patriarchal family arrangement. This supports the Trivers-Willard hypothesis, especially in terms of sex-biased parental investment after birth in the form of inheritance. In this population, wealth/land was heritable and has a positive effect on subsequent offspring reproduction; therefore, the lineages that concentrated inheritance in males outreproduced those that did not. To a great extent, religion is politics in this region of the world. Social and political tensions between different ethnic groups, drawn across religious lines, are central to the Sand ak cultures and it is also relevant in Serbia. In the Islamic Sand ak, even today, the position of women and women’s roles in reproduction occupies central positions in religious, popu
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