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YAPAY S N R A LARI VE NSAN BEYN / ARTIFICIAL NEURAL NETWORKS AND HUMAN BRAIN
Esen ERSOY,mer KARAL
Journal of the Human and Social Science Researches (itobiad) , 2012,
Abstract: nsan beyni, üzerinde en ok ara t rma yap lan, en ok yaz yaz lan ama hakk nda en az ey bildi imiz organ m zd r. nsano lu, en nemli g revlerinden biri ak l üretimi olan beyni rnekleyerek, kendisi gibi davran lar g sterebilen ve kararlar verebilen modeller olu turma u ra s i erisindedir. renme, hat rlama, dü ünme gibi tüm insan davran lar n n temelinde sinir hücreleri bulunmaktad r. Bu yüzden, ak l üzerinde en fazla ara t rma yap lan konu “yapay sinir a lar ”d r. Yapay sinir a lar , temelde tamamen insan beyni rneklenerek geli tirilmi bir teknolojidir ve iki y nden beyne benzer: renme ve renilen bilginin saklanmas . E itimde de nemli olan renme ve renilen bilginin saklanmas d r. E itim süreci i inde beynin renmenin ge ekle mesinde etkin bir ara olarak kullan lmas gerekmektedir. E itim ve retim sürecinde beynin etkin olarak kullan lmas i in e itim ortamlar n n uygun uyar c lara y nelik tasarlanmas gerekmektedir. Bu ama la, insan davran lar n n temelinde olan sinir hücrelerinin etkin olarak kullan lmas gerekmektedir. nsan davran lar n temel alan “Beyin Temelli renme” kuram e itim ortamlar nda yayg n olarak kullan lmas gereken bir kuramd r.Human brain is the organ over which numerous studies have been carried out, on which lots of articles have been written but about which we know very little. Mankind has been engaged in creating models that can exhibit attitudes and make decisions like him by sampling the brain, one of the most important tasks of which is to produce wisdom. Neural cells exist in the soul of all human behaviour like learning, remembering and thinking. Therefore, the subject which utmost studies have been carried out on wisdom is “the artificial neural nets”. Artificial nevre nets is a technology developed by modelling totally human brain in main and it resembles brain in two aspects: learning and storage of the learned knowledge. What is important in education is learning and the storage of learned knowledge. In the education process, it is necessary that brain be used as an efficient tool in the materialization of learning. The education environment must be designed aiming at proper/suitable stimuli in order for brain to be used effectively in teaching and learning process. To that end, it is necessary that the neural cells in the basis of human behaviour be used effectively. The theory of “ Brain-Based Learning” which bases human behaviour is a theory which must be commonly used in the teaching environments.
Management of gestational trophoblastic neoplasia with vaginal metastasis
I??n üREYEN,Günsu K?MYON,Alper KARAL?K,mer Lütfi TAPISIZ
Marmara Medical Journal , 2013,
Abstract: A patient who had gestational trophoblastic neoplasia (GTN) with vaginal metastasis resistant to sequential methotrexatefolinic acid (MTX-FA) treatment is presented. She was 25 years old and presented with vaginal bleeding. A curettage was performed and the pathology revealed a partial hydatidiform mole. There was a rise in β-hCG, a 2 cm metastatic lesion on the middle third of the right wall of the vagina, and there were nodular implants up to a size of 12 mm in both lungs. Therefore, she was diagnosed as having a GTN. She was considered as having low risk metastatic GTN, as her modified WHO score was 3. She took seven cycles of sequential MTX-FA theraphy. She was accepted as resistant to MTX-FA and her treatment was changed to actinoycin-D, because her β-hCG values plateaued. Her β-hCG was normalized after the second cycle of actinoycin-D. She took 2 additional cycles of actinoycin-D. Resistance to MTXFA may develop in patients who had a GTN with vaginal metastasis, even though they have low risk scores. These patients may respond to actinoycin-D.
A Life-Threatening Condition in A Child With Chicken Pox: Eczema Herpeticum  [PDF]
Coskun CELTIK, Yasemin KARAL, Asli KIBRIS, Deniz KIRCUVAL, Binnur TUZUN
Open Journal of Pediatrics (OJPed) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/ojped.2011.11001
Abstract: Eczema herpeticum is a severe infectious eruption caused by Herpes group viruses. The disease usually occurs in the patients with pre existing dermatosis, expecially atopic dermatitis. A three-year-old boy who has high fever and widespread skin eruptions with vesiculopustuler eruptions, erosions and ulcers was brought out to our emergency clinic. The patient had no pre-existing dermatosis, but he had suffered from chicken-pox. As serological, the antibodies of Varicella-IgM and Herpes simplex-IgM were positive. Eczema Herpeticum which occurred on a chicken-pox was diagnosed according to his history, physical examination, laboratory and pathologic findings. Acyclovir and empiric antibiotherapy together with the symptomatic therapy were used for treatment. His skin lesions recovered in one week after these therapies. The aim of this case-report is to emphasize the features of eczema herpeticum which occurred on a pre-existing varicella eruption.
Evaluation of Children with Goiter and Treatment Outcomes
Yasin Karal,Halil Sa?lam,Kadri Kamber,Zuhal Karal
Güncel Pediatri , 2008,
Abstract: Aim: Goiter is defined as the enlargement of thyroid gland independent of the etiology. It is common in childhood, especially in adolescence. The prevalence of goiter in children aged 6 to 12 years of age was found as 24.9 to 92% in different studies performed in different regions of Turkey. The most common cause in endemic regions is iodine deficiency and it is chronic lymphocytic thyroiditis in non-endemic areas. The aim of this study was to evaluate the demographic and diagnostic characteristics; and physical, laboratory and radiological findings of the children who were presented and followed-up with goiter, and the efficacy of the treatments applied was also assessed.Materials and Methods: A total of 116 children diagnosed as having goiter by physical and ultrasonographic examination in the outpatient clinic of Pediatric Endocrinology Division of Uludag University Faculty of Medicine, between January 2000 and December 2005. Data of the patient were collected retrospectively from the files/records of the patients. Goiter grades of the patients were determined according to that recommended by WHO. Thyroid volumes were calculated from the ultrasonographic measurement of thyroid dimensions. Patients with euthyroid or hypothyroid goiter had L-thyroxine therapy and those with hyperthyroidism had propiltiourasil and/or propranolol. Results: Of all children, 80 (69%) were girls and the remaining 36 were boys (31%). At the time of initial diagnosis, the mean ages of the girls and the boys were 10.1±2.9 years and 9.02± years, respectively. The mean follow-up period was 3.18±1.83 years. Most children (76.7%) had grade Ib (38.8%) or II (37.9%) goiter at the time of diagnosis. Of all children with goiter, 62 (53.4%) were euthyroid, 47 (40.5%) were hypothyroid and 7 (6.0%) were hyperthyroid. Seventy nine (68.1%) patients had history of thyroid disease in their families. There were additional endocrinological disturbances, epilepsy and other systemic diseases in 11 (9.5%), 11 (9.5%) and 7 (6.0%) patients, respectively. Eighty three (71.6%) patients had simple diffuse goiter, 18 had Hashimoto thyroiditis (4 of whom also having nodules), 11 (10.4%) had isolated nodüler/multinodüler goiter, 3 (2.6%) had Graves disease and 1 (0.9%) had papillary thyroid carcinoma. Mean thyroid volume by ultrasonography was significantly decreased from 12.68±3.57 (3.4 to 35.7) ml to 9.2±3.57 (3.19 to 22.1) ml with the treatment (p<0.05). Similarly goiter grades by physical examination were also significantly decreased, with only 36.2% of the patients having grade Ib (26.7%) or grade I
Students’ Adoption of Distance Education Environments: an Action Research of a Non-Thesis Masters’ Program
Muhammet BER?GEL,Hasan KARAL
Journal of Kirsehir Education Faculty , 2011,
Abstract: The purpose of this research is to examine the factors in students‘ adoption of a distance education environment. An action research model was used for this study. The researcher was the system administrator of the learning management system. The action research methodology was used to profile student‘s adaption process. The findings are obtained from the researchers‘ observations and data collected from the learning management system. The study included 132 students enrolled in Educational Administration, Controlling, Planning, and Economics non-thesis Master‘s program. The results suggest that organizational structure and the technologies used are the main factors in assisting students to adopt distance education and reducing the adoption period.
Effect of Collaborative Studies on Prospective Teachers’ Creative Thinking Skills while Designing Computer Based Material
Salih B?R????,Hasan KARAL
Journal of Kirsehir Education Faculty , 2011,
Abstract: The purpose of this study to examine effect of collaborative studies on prospective teachers creative thinking skills while designing computer based materials. One group pre-test and post-test design of the pre-experimental model was used to achieve the objectives of the study. This experimental study have been applied to 34 prospective teachers who studied at Artvin Coruh University Facult of Education Primary Education Department in 2009-2010 spring term within the context of “Computer-II” course. “Creative Thinking Skill Scale” was applied at two different stages as pre-test and post-test and opinions of students were gathered about the method in research via interview forms. As a result, it was found that there was a significant difference between the prospective teachers creative thinking skills and scores taken from scale were increased in favor of post-test. Collaborative group works have a great importance in occurrence of this increase was revealed from student views.
Crystallization, Transport and Magnetic Properties of the Amorphous (Fe1–xMnx)75P15C10 Alloys  [PDF]
Md. Kamruzzaman, Md. Abu Sayem Karal, Dilip Kumar Saha, Feroz Alam Khan
Journal of Crystallization Process and Technology (JCPT) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/jcpt.2012.23013
Abstract: The amorphous (Fe1-xMnx)75P15C10 (0 ≤ x ≥ 0.30) alloys were prepared by the standard melt spinning technique and investigated their crystallization, thermal, transport and magnetic properties. Crystallization was observed from 400℃ to 650℃ with an interval 50℃within 30 minutes annealing time by XRD. The as-cast samples were amorphous in nature. Annealing 400℃ to 450℃ samples showed the mixed bcc Fe and amorphous structures. The lattice parameter ‘a’ was varied from 2.855 to 2.859 ? but above 450℃, samples contained hexagonal, FeP and FeC structures. The lattice parameters ‘a’ and ‘c’ were varied from (5.016-5.036) ? and (13.575-13.820) ? , respectively. Average crystallite size was found to vary from 8 to 48 nm. Crystallization temperature and weight change were observed by differential thermal analysis and thermogravimetric analysis, respectively. Crystallization temperature was increased with increasing Mn content. Resistivity was increased above and bellows the Curie temperature. Real permeability remained almost constant upto around 106 Hz for of all samples after that it was decreased with increasing frequency and it was also decreased with Mn, whereas imaginary permeability was increased sharply above frequency 107 Hz. The value of saturation magnetization was found to decrease with increment Mn.
SYNCHRONIC DISTANCE EDUCATION FROM THE PERSPECTIVE OF A HANDICAPPED PERSON
Hasan KARAL,Ayca CEBI,Yigit Emrah TURGUT
The Turkish Online Journal of Distance Education , 2011,
Abstract: Nowadays knowledge and communication technologies are developing rapidly and changing people’s lives. With the help of the developing technologies, people can access knowledge independent of time and place and distance education technologies offer handicapped students a range of opportunities in order that they may access a better level of education. By defining perceptions related to the distance education of a physically handicapped student engaged in a program of synchrony distance education at Karadeniz Technical University to throw a fresh light on this topic. Due to the nature research problem, phenomenology, one of qualitative research patterns, was used in this study which has a qualitative character. In this study, because it was intended to present a handicapped person’s thoughts related to distance education, semi-structured interview, one of qualitative data collection techniques was thought to be the most appropriate data collection instrument. The sampling of the research included the handicapped student receiving courses by synchrony distance education in Karadeniz Technical University, two friends of the student following the same course and the assistant in the course environment. The interviews were recorded with a video camera, a transcript of each of the interviews was prepared and the data was analyzed scientifically. In the light of the research findings, it was decided that the synchrony distance education environment helped handicapped person feel more secure and relaxed and for his handicap not to be noticed by others. In addition, without the lecturers’ feeling of compassion, it presented handicapped student with an opportunity to prove himself. Also, because the courses classes? were recorded in this environment, students could review the content of the class in their own time and this process could be repeated, thus the students could learn at their own speed.
A SIMULTANEOUS MOBILE E-LEARNING ENVIRONMENT AND APPLICATION
Hasan KARAL,Ekrem BAH?EKAPILI,Adil YILDIZ
The Turkish Online Journal of Distance Education , 2010,
Abstract: The purpose of the present study was to design a mobile learning environment that enables the use of a teleconference application used in simultaneous e-learning with mobile devices and to evaluate this mobile learning environment based on students’ views. With the mobile learning environment developed in the study, the students are able to follow a teleconference application realized by using appropriate mobile devices. The study was carried out with 8 post-graduate students enrolled in Karadeniz Technical University (KTU), Department of Computer Education and Instructional Technologies (CEIT), Graduate School of Natural and Applied Science. The students utilized this teleconference application using mobile devices supporting internet access and Adobe Flash technology. Of the 8 students, 4 accessed the system using EDGE technology and 4 used wireless internet technology. At the end of the application, the audio and display were delayed by 4-5 seconds with EDGE technology, and were delayed by 7-8 seconds with wireless internet technology. Based on the students’ views, it was concluded that the environment had some deficiencies in terms of quality, especially in terms of the screen resolution. Despite this, the students reported that this environment could provide more flexibility in terms of space and time when compared to other simultaneous distance education applications. Although the environment enables interaction, in particular, the problem of resolution caused by screen size is a disadvantage for the system. When this mobile learning application is compared to conventional education environments, it was found that mobile learning does have a role in helping the students overcome the problems of participating in learning activities caused by time and space constraints.
Selective IgA Deficiency and Common Variable Immunodeficiency
Kadri Kamber,Zuhal Karal,Sara ?ebnem K?l??
Güncel Pediatri , 2009,
Abstract: Selective IgA deficiency (sIgAD), using 5 mg/dl of serum IgA as the upper limit for diagnosis and concomitant lack of secretory IgA, is the most common form of primary immunodeficiency. The pathogenesis of IgA deficiency is not known, although abnormalities in Ig class switching and the cytokines involved in isotype switching have been implicated. Common Variable Immunodeficiency (CVID) is a heterogenous group of B cell deficiency syndromes characterized by hypogammaglobulinemia, impaired antibody production and recurrent bacterial infections. Defective T-cell activation may lead to an impairment in cognate T-B-cell interaction due to impaired expression of CD40 ligand and/or abnormalities in the production of T-cell-derived cytokines required for fully functional B-cell activation, proliferation and/or differentiation which could indeed explain the impairment in antibody production present in CVID patients. It has been found that cytokines are produced in low levels due to the decreased T cell function which occurs as a result of the defect in CD40L expression in CVID patients. (Journal of Current Pediatrics 2009; 7: 90-5)
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