Abstract:
Researches on the application of Science and Technology course indicates that teachers have various problems about homework. That is, homework is seen as a part of teaching-learning process at Science and Technology Course Curriculum which was applied in 2005-2006 academic year. The main purpose of this study is to examine teachers’ opinions about homework process. The research has been conducted qualitatively. Data were collected from eight elementary school teachers working at two elementary schools through semi-structured interviews in 2007-2008 academic year. The data were analyzed in descriptive data analysis methods. The findings showed that the teachers give homework mostly for the purpose of reinforcement, and asked for homework that prevents creative skills. Research findings also indicated that teachers have problems about homework with regard to web, students, and their parents.

Abstract:
The purpose of this study was to examine primary school teachers’ beliefs on teaching-learning processes in science and technology course which is offered in the 4-5th grade primary school curriculum. The study was designed as a qualitative phenomenological study. Participants were 15 primary school teachers who were teaching 4th or 5th graders during the 2008-2009 academic year. Data were collected through semi-structured interviews. Content analyses were conducted in order to generate themes and quotations were used to support findings. Results of the study indicated that nine teachers were in the stage of transition from teacher-centered approach to student-centered approach. Only five teachers showed evidence that they used a student-centered approach while teaching and one teacher presented ideas of teacher-centered approach. Results indicated that most of the participants in this study were not practicing based on constructivist teaching philosophy in science and technology course. Professional development programs, which emphasize constructivist teaching philosophy and practices, should be available for primary school teachers.

Abstract:
It was given a prototype constructing a new sequence space of fuzzy numbers by means of the matrix domain of a particular limitation method. That is we have constructed the Zweier sequence spaces of fuzzy numbers , , and consisting of all sequences such that in the spaces , , and , respectively. Also, we prove that , , and are linearly isomorphic to the spaces , , and , respectively. Additionally, the -, -, and -duals of the spaces , , and have been computed. Furthermore, two theorems concerning matrix map have been given. 1. Introduction and Preliminaries Let suppose that , , and are the set of all positive integers, all real numbers, and all bounded and closed intervals on the real line ; that is, and , respectively. For define It can easily be seen that defines a metric on and the pair is a complete metric space [1]. Let be nonempty set. According to Zadeh, a fuzzy subset of is a nonempty subset of for some function [2]. Consider a function as a subset of a nonempty base space and denote the family of all such functions or fuzzy sets by . Let us suppose that the function satisfies the following properties:(1) is normal; that is, there exists an such that ;(2) is fuzzy convex; that is, for any and , ;(3) is upper semicontinuous;(4)the closure of , denoted by , is compact. Then the function is called a fuzzy number [9]. Properties (1)–(4) imply that for each , the -cut set of the fuzzy number defined by is in ; that is, for each . We denote the set of all fuzzy numbers by . Also, the following statements hold:(5) is a bounded and nondecreasing left continuous function on ;(6) is a bounded and nonincreasing left continuous function on ;(7)the functions and are right continuous at the point ;(8) . Sometimes, the representation of fuzzy numbers with -cut sets is cause failures according to algebraic operations. For example, if is any fuzzy number, then is not equal to fuzzy zero. In this study, we have used another type representation of a fuzzy number to avoid this type algebraic failure which is used in [3, 4]. Furthermore, we know that shape similarity of the membership functions does not reflect the conception itself, but the context in which it is used. Whether a particular shape is suitable or not can be determined only in the context of a particular application. However, many applications are not overly sensitive to variations in the shape. In such cases, it is convenient to use a simple shape, such as the triangular shape of membership function. For example, let us consider any triangular fuzzy number . If the function is the membership function

Abstract:
The purpose of this paper is to introduce new spaces and 0 that consist of all sequences whose Riesz transforms of order one are in the spaces and 0, respectively. We also show that and 0 are linearly isomorphic to the spaces and 0, respectively. The - and -duals of the spaces and 0 are computed. Furthermore, the classes (∶) and (∶) of infinite matrices are characterized for any given sequence space and determine the necessary and sufficient conditions on a matrix to satisfy ？core()？？core(), ？core()？？core() for all ∈？∞.

Abstract:
Some properties of the fuzzy convergence and fuzzy boundedness of a sequence of fuzzy numbers were studied in Choi (1996). In this paper, we have consider, some important problems on these spaces and shown that these spaces are fuzzy complete module spaces. Also, the fuzzy -, fuzzy -, and fuzzy -duals of the fuzzy module spaces of fuzzy numbers have been computeded, and some matrix transformations are given. 1. Introduction As known, the ideas of fuzzy sets and fuzzy operations were first introduced by Zadeh [1], and after his innovation, many authors have studied different aspects of the fuzzy numbers theory and applications. One of them is the sequence spaces of the fuzzy numbers. A major direction in the study on sequence spaces of fuzzy numbers is the metric properties of these spaces (see [2–4]), but this direction has been altered by Talo and Ba？ar [5]. Some important problems on sequence spaces of fuzzy numbers can be ordered as follows:(1)to construct a sequence space of fuzzy numbers and compute -, - and -duals,(2)to find some isomorphic spaces of it,(3)to give some theorems about matrix transformation on sequence space of fuzzy numbers,(4)to study some inclusion problems and other properties. By using the metric, , these problems have been nicely studied by Talo and Ba？ar in [5]. But, as known, by defining different metrics on sequence spaces of fuzzy numbers, different metric spaces can be built up. By using metric, so many spaces of fuzzy sequences have been built and many metric properties have been investigated. In literature, one can easily reach many documents about sequence space of fuzzy numbers. In this paper, using a fuzzy metric, we will deal with some problems about fuzzy convergent and fuzzy bounded sequence spaces of fuzzy numbers which did not come up in [6]. Thus, we believe that some gaps in this area will be filled. The rest of this paper is structured as follows. Some required definitions and consequences related with the fuzzy numbers given in Section 2. Besides, as a proposition, the complete fuzzy module space of fuzzy numbers is given, and the sequence spaces of fuzzy numbers with fuzzy metric are introduced in this section. In Section 3, we have stated and proved the theorems determining the fuzzy -, fuzzy -, and fuzzy -duals of the fuzzy sequence space of fuzzy numbers. Finally, in Section 4, the fuzzy classes and of infinite matrix of fuzzy numbers are characterized. 2. Preliminaries Lets suppose that is the set of all positive integer numbers, is the set of all real numbers, is the be the set of all bounded and

Abstract:
This paper aims to provide evidence-based recommendations for health professionals, to develop a comprehensive cervical cancer program for a clinic, a community, or a country. Ensuring access to healthcare is the responsibility of all societies, and the Asia Oceania Research Organisation in Genital Infections and Neoplasia (AOGIN) is committed to working collaboratively with governments and health professionals to facilitate prevention programs, to protect girls and women from cervical cancer, a disease that globally affects 500,000 and kills nearly 300,000 women annually, just over half of whom are in the Asia Oceania region. We share the vision that a comprehensive program of vaccination, screening, and treatment should be made accessible to all girls and women in the world. The primary purpose of these guidelines is to provide information on scientific evidence on the different modalities and approaches of cervical cancer prevention programs, for high resource and low resource settings. The secondary purpose is to provide an overview of the current situation of cervical cancer control and prevention in various Asian Oceania countries: their views of an ideal program, identified obstacles, and suggestions to overcome them are discussed. 1. AOGIN Consensus Statement on Prevention and Control of Cervical Cancer Cervical cancer can be prevented in two ways: (i)primary prevention, aimed at preventing or neutralizing the infection with human papillomavirus (HPV), as for example through prophylactic HPV vaccination, and (ii)secondary prevention, aimed at preventing precancerous lesions from progressing to invasive cancer through screening, early detection, diagnosis, and treatment, as clinically indicated. These are two distinct healthcare programs targeting women of different age groups, namely, vaccination of adolescent girls and young women, and commencement of screening of women aged 25 to 35 years. These two programs can be implemented in parallel or separately, depending on availability of suitable infrastructure and resources. Ideally, a combination of HPV vaccination programs together with effective screening and treatment for precancerous lesions has the greatest potential to significantly reduce the burden of cervical cancer. The Asia Oceania Research Organization in Genital Infections and Neoplasia (AOGIN) endorses the World Health Organization (WHO) position [1] on primary prevention that “routine human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination should be included in national immunization programs.” The WHO statement is contingent on the provision

Abstract:
Fragmentation of the healthcare system and lack of connectivity between in-hospital and community services, have posed an impact on management of patients with chronic conditions. As self-management is an essential component in chronic disease management model and pharmacists are underutilized in Hong Kong, this study developed a consensus-based policy framework on pharmacist-led self-management using a Delphi panel consisted of medical doctors, pharmacists, Chinese medicine practitioners and dispensers. We had studied a local population survey to understand the use of over-the-counter medication, conducted focus groups and telephone survey to explore the views of the four health professions and the general population, respectively, on pharmacist-led approach in self-management. The find- ings served as the base for developing the self-administered questionnaire in Delphi. A total of 19 experts completed the questionnaires and rated the validity and clarity of each statement in a 9-point scale. The Delphi process was completed in two rounds. Community pharmacists could only play an assisting role in patient self-management. They should focus primarily on drug-related issues and were suggested to work on lifestyle modifications collaboratively with physicians and nurses. The government has to develop supportive measures to enhance pharmacist-led patient self-management in the future.

Abstract:
Velocardiofacial syndrome (VCFS), the most frequent microdeletion syndrome identified in humans, is associated with chromosomal microdeletions in the q11 band of chromosome 22. Individuals with VCFS are reported to have a characteristic behavioral phenotype with high rates of behavioral, psychiatric, neuropsychological and linguistic disorders. It was noted that patients with VCFS have a higher prevalence of schizophrenia, mood disorders and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. This article aimed to present a case of VCFS with schizophrenia.

Abstract:
Objective: Although attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) was perceived as a disorder of childhood, it is now recognized as a chronic condition persisting into adulthood. The aim of this study was to explore the frequency of comorbidity in adults with ADHD.Methods: 80 ADHD patients between 16 and 60 years of age and 80 controls were recruited to the study. The groups were compared in terms of socio-demographic characteristics and diagnosis based on SCID-I and SCID-II. Results: The groups were identical regarding socio-demographic characteristics such as age, gender, education and marital status. The frequency of generalized anxiety disorder, major depression, dysthymia, somatoform disorder, antisocial and borderline personality disorders was significantly higher in ADHD group compared to the control group. Conclusion: We found that adult ADHD was an important risk factor for psychiatric comorbidity throughout lifetime. It is clear that misdiagnosis of comorbid disorders in ADHD patients may cause worsening of the symptoms and treatment resistance. Further studies on this topic may help us to better understand the course of adult ADHD and its treatment. (Archives of Neuropsychiatry 2010; 47: 139-43)