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The Performance of ICDAS-II Using Low-Powered Magnification with Light-Emitting Diode Headlight and Alternating Current Impedance Spectroscopy Device for Detection of Occlusal Caries on Primary Molars
Timucin Ari,Nilgun Ari
ISRN Dentistry , 2013, DOI: 10.1155/2013/276070
Abstract: Early detection of occlusal caries in children is challenging for the dentists, because of the morphology of pit and fissures. The aim of this study was to compare in vitro the diagnostic performance of low-powered magnification with light-emitting diode headlight (LPMLED) using ICDAS-II criteria and AC Impedance Spectroscopy (ACIS) device, on occlusal surfaces of primary molars. The occlusal surfaces of 18 extracted primary molars were examined blindly by two examiners. The teeth were sectioned and examined under light microscopy using Downer’s histological criteria as gold standard. Good to excellent inter- and intraexaminer reproducibility, higher sensitivity, specificity, and AUC values were achieved by LPMLED at D1 threshold. Also the relationship between histology and LPMLED was statistically significant. In conclusion visual aids have the potential to improve the performance of early caries detection and clinical diagnostics in children. Despite its potential, ACIS device should be considered as an adjunct method in detecting caries on primary teeth. 1. Introduction It is well established that caries levels in industrialized nations have decreased over the last few decades with the greatest reductions occurring on the smooth and approximal surfaces [1–4]. Because of the complex occlusal anatomy, more sensitive and reproducible diagnostic tools for precise caries detection in children are needed [5]. Visual examination still is the most commonly used method for detecting dental caries, but various studies showed problems for sensitivity and reproducibility problems [6–8]. A standardized scoring system, International Caries Detection and Assessment System (ICDAS-II), has been developed for clinical practice and research to overcome these problems [9]. A complimentary approach to visual examination is to use visual aids such as low-powered magnification (dental loupes) and special headlights mounted on them. These visual aids became popular among dentists to improve precision of visual examination and for ergonomic reasons [10, 11]. Advances in caries research led novel technologies to help dentists in the diagnosis of early lesions. ACIS device (CarieScan PRO, Dundee, Scotland) is one of the recent examples of the novel technologies. This device relies on the application of a small alternating electrical signal (undetectable by the patient) through the tooth while monitoring the response at the sensor. By changing frequency of the applied signal, a spectrum is captured which provides valuable insights into the physical and chemical properties of
Dielectric Polarization and Particle Shape Effects
Ari Sihvola
Journal of Nanomaterials , 2007, DOI: 10.1155/2007/45090
Abstract: This article reviews polarizability properties of particles and clusters. Especially the effect of surface geometry is given attention. The important parameter of normalized dipolarizability is studied as function of the permittivity and the shape of the surface of the particle. For nonsymmetric particles, the quantity under interest is the average of the three polarizability dyadic eigenvalues. The normalized polarizability, although different for different shapes, has certain universal characteristics independent of the inclusion form. The canonical shapes (sphere, spheroids, ellipsoids, regular polyhedra, circular cylinder, semisphere, double sphere) are studied as well as the correlation of surface parameters with salient polarizability properties. These geometrical and surface parameters are essential in the material modeling problems in the nanoscale.
Consumers’ Sustainability Perceptions of the Supply Chain of Locally Produced Food
Ari Paloviita
Sustainability , 2010, DOI: 10.3390/su2061492
Abstract: This article is based on a qualitative focus group study regarding consumer perceptions about the sustainability of locally produced food supply chains. Sustainability perceptions were analyzed through thematic content analysis, where the most important economic, environmental and social themes of the supply chain were emphasized. According to the research findings, the socio-cultural aspects encompassing locally produced food form the most important sustainability dimension for consumers. Although the sample size is small, consisting of 19 consumers and limited to Central Finland, the findings suggest that the sustainability of local food should be promoted via socio-cultural arguments alongside economic or environmental ones. The results conclude that the development of local food networks requires direct personal relationships with producers, social networking, consumer education and communication.
Analysis of air pollution mortality in terms of life expectancy changes: relation between time series, intervention, and cohort studies
Ari Rabl
Environmental Health , 2006, DOI: 10.1186/1476-069x-5-1
Abstract: Whereas most epidemiological studies of air pollution mortality have been formulated in terms of mortality risk, this paper shows that a formulation in terms of life expectancy change is mathematically equivalent, but offers several advantages: it automatically takes into account the constraint that everybody dies exactly once, regardless of pollution; it provides a unified framework for time series, intervention studies and cohort studies; and in time series and intervention studies, it yields the life expectancy change directly as a time integral of the observed mortality rate.Results are presented for life expectancy change in time series studies. Determination of the corresponding total number of attributable deaths (as opposed to the number of observed deaths) is shown to be problematic. The time variation of mortality after a change in exposure is shown to depend on the processes by which the body can repair air pollution damage, in particular on their time constants. Hypothetical results are presented for repair models that are plausible in view of the available intervention studies of air pollution and of smoking cessation. If these repair models can also be assumed for acute effects, the results of cohort studies are compatible with those of time series.The proposed life expectancy framework provides information on the life expectancy change in time series studies, and it clarifies the relation between the results of time series, intervention, and cohort studies.There has been much debate about the significance of the mortality impacts (sometimes called "acute mortality") observed in time series (TS) studies, an issue often referred to as harvesting or mortality displacement (see, for example, the articles by Zeger et al [1] and Schwartz [2]). The key question is whether the observed deaths have been advanced by only a few days or whether the loss of life expectancy (LE) is much larger. This issue is crucial for the monetary valuation and for policy implica
Religi?es afro-brasileiras do Rio Grande do Sul: passado e presente
Oro, Ari;
Estudos Afro-Asiáticos , 2002, DOI: 10.1590/S0101-546X2002000200006
Abstract: the article is divided into two parts. the first presents data about the slavery period in rio grande do sul, the structure of afro-brazilian religions (batuque, umbanda and linha cruzada) in this state and the historical and controversial role played by an african prince who lived here from the late 19th century until 1935. the second part analyses three particularly important aspects of these religions in rio grande do sul nowadays: the presence of non-negroes in them, its transnational expansion to argentina and uruguay, and the ever-close relations with local political power.
Funkeiros, timbaleiros e pagodeiros: notas sobre juventude e música negra na cidade de Salvador
Lima, Ari;
Cadernos CEDES , 2002, DOI: 10.1590/S0101-32622002000200006
Abstract: in this article, i intend to discuss how, in the racialized context of the association between black youth and music, experiences arise and develop as identity marks, social criticism and the ratification of racial, class and gender hierarchies. to do so, i work with the idea of youth and generation as not only a biological, but also a social and historical data, and with the idea of music as a shared sense. besides, i discuss my own ethnographical observations as well as those of other authors who reflected on the relationship between music and black youth and have basically observed, in various contexts, young, poor, partly negro suburbanites with low schooling, some having a low buying power, others being anxious consumers. i conclude pinpointing the importance of music as a configuration instrument for a youthful and black diaspora experience, but also as an instrument that renews old dissimilarities that are not genetic.
A Reestrutura??o do Modelo Nórdico de Educa??o
Revista Lusófona de Educa??o , 2008,
Abstract: this article discusses the nordic model or pattern of welfare state and education. it shows how restructuring processes are going at policy level and institutional level. still the basic structures of the nordic model or pattern, especially the principles of comprehensive schools and local schools, are left. by the institutional approach, a new path generation or institutional pattern is emerging, but its legitimization and establishment will take a long time. changes in policy and organization are much faster than in sociocultural settings. such success stories like the danish labour market reform and the rise of the finnish knowledge intensive ict cluster have paved the way for this transformation. there is still a possibility that a welfare-state strategy and a competition-state strategy will coexist.
How many English Words do the Senior High School Students Acquire per Week?
Ari Nurweni
TEFLIN Journal , 1997,
Abstract: : The 1984 SMA English curriculum states that SMA graduates are expected to master 4000 words. The curriculum also specifies the topics and then umber of words to be exposed to SMA students for each week (30 words per week). If it is accepted that each semester consists of 15 weeks, and each week the students actually learn 30 different words, then SMA graduates only learn about 2700 different words during their study at senior high school. Therefore, in my opinion the number of 4000 words also includes the words that should have been learnt by the them at SMP, that is, 1500 words according to the updated 1975 SMP English curriculum. However, Nababan (1984) states that we tend to forget about 40% of the words we have learned. If this is accepted, theoretically SMA graduates will only acquire about 2520 of the 4200 words (if the students only learn 2700 and 1500 at SMA and SMP respectively). The figure suggests that on average the students acquire about 14 different words per week during their study at SMP and SMA (2520 words divided by {12 semesters x 15 weeks}).
Ari Harsono
Makara Seri Sosial Humaniora , 2010,
Abstract: Leadership which has been well-known and applied in times is actually a manifestation of paradigm of ‘the chairperson leadership’ or ‘person leadership’. Research shows that this paradigm implies several of weaknesses which the organizations themselves are less aware of. This weaknesses have made and will cause many losses, such as crisis in personality, social humanity, economy, culture, and environment. The fundamental weakness –linked to others– is the person centered characteristic which empowers the chairperson to be the last one to judge in decision making.
Managerial Decision Making Under Risk and Uncertainty
Ari Riabacke
IAENG International Journal of Computer Science , 2006,
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