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利用AFLP分子标记技术对山东百部4个居群120个样品进行了遗传多样性分析。8对引物组合共扩增出282条清晰可辨条带，其中多态性条带137条，多态性位点百分率48.58%；在种级水平上，Nei’s基因多样性指数为0.1441，Shannon多态性信息指数为0.2485；居群总遗传多样性(Ht)为0.1646，居群内遗传多样性为0.1682，基因分化系数为0.0210。UPGMA聚类表明，AFLP聚类结果与表型分化聚类结果一致，居群间具有一定程度的遗传分化，并通过表型性状表现出来。Genetic diversity and genetic structure of 120 individuals of four Stemona shandongensis popula- tions were investigated by AFLP method. A total of 282 bands were observed with 8 primer combination, in- cluding 137 polymorphic bands. The percentage of polymorphic bands was 48.58%. In species level, Nei’s gene diversity index was 0.1441; Shannon’s information index was 0.2485; total gene diversity was 0.1646; population gene diversity was 0.1682, gene differentiation coefficient was 0.0210. UPGMA cluster based on AFLP makers was similar to the cluster based on morphological traits; there was no significant correlation between genetic distance and geographic distance. The results showed that there was genetic differentiation among populations, and it could express by morphological characteristics.