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采用改进分析型嵌入原子法(MAEAM)计算了面心立方过渡金属Ni、Pd、Pt、Cu、Ag、Au和Al自扩散过程中的能量。对于最近邻(NN)和次近邻(NNN)二种扩散机制，其能量曲线均为对称曲线且能量的最大值均位于各自扩散路径的中点。计算得到的单空位形成能、迁移能和自扩散激活能比用嵌入原子法(EAM)计算的结果更接近NN扩散的实验数据。计算结果表明NN扩散的激活能最低(迁移能也为最低)，因此面心立方过渡金属中的最可几扩散为单空位最近邻扩散。The energy during the process of self-diffusion in FCC transition metals Ni, Pd, Pt, Cu, Ag, Au and Al has been calculated by using modified analytic embedded-atom method (MAEAM). For each kind of two diffusion mechanisms nearest-neighbor (NN) and next-nearest-neighbor (NNN), the energy curve is symmetric and the maximum value of the energy appears at the middle point of the diffusion path. Determined mono-vacancy formation energy , migration energy and activation energy for self-diffusion agree well with available experimental data of NN diffusion and are better than those obtained by the embedded-atom method (EAM). Compared the energies corresponding to two diffusion mechanisms, the NN diffusion needs the lowest activation energy (and thus the lowest migration energy). So that, the NN mono-vacancy diffusion is favorable in FCC transition metals.
随着全球环境日渐恶化，环境意识与绿色消费已成为国际议题。本研究透过文献整理探讨中国消费者在环境意识、绿色态度与绿色消费行为之间的关系，以及内外部环境影响和阻碍因素，并归纳与推导研究主张与概念图。最后，本文在借鉴国外经验和结合中国实际情况的基础上，提出中国绿色消费行为的推行建议与管理意涵。As the global environment is deteriorating,
environmental conscious and green consumption have become an international
issue. Through the literature review, this research explores the relationships
among the environmental conscious, green attitude and green consumer behavior
in China, as well as internal and external environmental impacts and consumption
constraints, and concludes with the propositions and concept framework.
Finally, this research provides the improvement suggestions and managerial
implications based on the actual situation in China and combined with foreign