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近年来，四川省经济整体发展的重心逐渐从要素和资本的投入转变为对知识创新的投入，人口文化素质对地区经济发展的重要性愈发突出，但是对此的探讨却并不多见。因此，对全省人口文化素质的空间格局进行分析研究就显得意义重大。文章以人均受教育年限和文盲率为切入点，以省级行政区为单元，利用四川省第五次和第六次人口普查数据和相应年份的统计年鉴数据，结合空间统计的方法，对全省各地区的人口文化素质进行分析。结果显示，十年间，四川省的人口文化素质整体有所提高，各个地市州的人口文化素质空间关系逐渐变弱，且与各地区的经济发展水平正相关。In recent years, the center of gravity of the overall economic development of Sichuan province gradually shift from elements and the investment of capital to investment in knowledge innovation, and the importance of population’s cultural quality to regional economic development is increasingly prominent. But there is little research about it. Therefore, the analysis of the spatial pattern of the population’s cultural qual- ity is significant. This paper is based on per capita number of the education year and the rate of illiteracy, and uses the provincial administrative region as a unit, adopting the fifth and sixth population census data of Sichuan province and the statistical yearbooks of the corresponding years, and applies the methods of spatial statistics to the regional research of population cultural quality. Results showed that in ten years the overall cultural quality of the population of Sichuanprovince was improved, the spatial relationship of population cultural quality among cities gradually became weak, and it was related to the level of regional economic development.