甘蓝型油菜是重要的油料作物，不仅可生产食用油，而且其饼粕富含蛋白质，可作为动物饲料。油菜种子中因含有大量抗营养物质，如多酚化合物、木质素和纤维素等，其中多酚物质主要包括单宁、原花色素、类黄酮、羟基苯丙烯酸的衍生物和芥子油苷等，这些物质会严重影响菜籽油的品质和饲料的营养价值。本文主要介绍这些抗营养物质的种类、分离和测定方法，为油菜品质育种和改良提供参考。Rapeseed (Brassica napus L.) is the second largest oil crop in the world. And rapeseed meal, the by-product after oil processing, has been considered as a good source for protein and animal forage, which makes rapeseed an useful economic crop. However, the utilization of rapeseed is still limited to the existance of abundant anti-nutritional factors including phenolic compounds, lignin and fibre. Hence, improving the quality of rapeseed with reduced anti-nutritional factors is becoming the primary mission for rapeseed breeders. The phenolic compounds of rapeseed mainly include plant tannins, proanthocyanidins, flavonoids, hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives and glucosinolate. Since proanthocyanidins (PAs) is relevant to the formation of pigments in seed coat, many studies focused on discovering biosynthetic pathway and better quantification of PAs. At the same time, the group of anti-nutritional factors is interrelated to one another, which need to be deeply clarified by further studies in the future, including their synthetic precursors, biosynthetic pathway and molecular mechanisms.
甘蓝型油菜种子含有大量的多酚物质，主要是羟基苯丙烯酸衍生物、原花色素和类黄酮衍生物，不同研究者对多酚物质的研究方法各异。本文使用化学分析和HPLC-ESI/MS2分析，首先研究了不同溶液在不同温度下对油菜籽多酚物质萃取效率的影响，发现80%的丙酮水溶液在室温条件下对油菜籽多酚的萃取效率最高。进一步对未成熟种子种皮和胚多酚物质进行研究，发现总酚和总类黄酮含量种皮明显高于胚。多酚物质中，种皮类黄酮和原花色素的含量要高于胚，但羟基苯丙烯酸衍生物的含量要低于胚。芥子碱是油菜籽中含量最丰富的多酚物质，主要存在于胚当中。而表儿茶素是含量最丰富的类黄酮物质，主要存在于种皮当中。Phenolics are abundant in seeds of Brassica napus, mainly including hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives, proanthocyanidins (PAs) and flavonoid derivatives. Different research methods have been reported by researchers. In this research, both chemical analysis and HPLC-ESI/MS2 analysis were conducted to compare the different compositions of soluble phenolics in embryo and seed coat of B. napus. The extraction parameters were also optimized by comparing single factors like extraction temperature and solvent. And the results showed that room temperature and solvent of 80% acetone yielded the maximum phenolics. Further comparison showed that total phenolics and flavonoids in seed coat were much higher than in embryo of immature seeds. Among the identified phenolics, flavonoid and proanthocyanidin in seed coat were higher than in embryo, whereas derivatives of hydroxyl-cinnamic acid were lower accumulated in seed coat than embryo. Sinapine, as the most abundant phenolics, was mainly existed in embryo. And epicatechin was abundant in seed coat, which was well known as the most abundant flavonoids.