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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 37373 matches for " 许政援 "
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儿童语言和认知(思维)发展的关系

心理学报 , 1994,
Abstract: 在对幼儿从出生到3岁语言发展追踪研究和有关实验研究结果的基础上,比较、分析儿童语言和认知(思维)发展的各阶段及起作用的因素,探讨语言发展和认知发展的关系,提出以下几点看法:(1)儿童在1岁前(前语言期)的具体思维阶段有认知(有感知、记忆、表象和思维),但还没有真正的语言。这说明语言不是先于思维,也不是所有的思维都与语言相联系。但是,人类特有的抽象思维却与语言有着密切的联系。(2)认知(思维)发展是语言发展的基础。(3)认知(思维)发展和语言发展的关系是双向的,辩证的,是复杂地交互作用的。(4)应以辩证的唯物主义的观点来看语言和认知(思维)的产生。人类所以有语言,有高度抽象概括的思维,都源于人类的实践活动。
三岁前儿童语言发展的研究和有关的理论问题

心里发展与教育 , 1996,
Abstract: 本文是对我们从1955年到1995年(其间1966-1977年停)所做三岁前儿童言语发展追踪研究的总结,也包括一些横断研究和实验研究.文中对三岁前儿童言语发展的过程、阶段、特点、规律以及影响因素等方面作了分析;并在这些研究材料的基础上对语言发展的普遍性、儿童语言获得的理论和语言发展与认知(思维)发展关系等有关理论问题进行了探讨,提出了自己的观点.
对儿童语言获得的几点看法─—从追踪研究结果分析影响儿童语言获得的因素

心里发展与教育 , 1994,
Abstract: 儿童语言获得有普遍性,但也存在某些差异。经分析,影响和决定儿童语言获得普遍性和差异的是同样的四个因素:第一个因素是语言本身有普遍性,但不同语言也存在一些差异;第二个因素是人脑和言语器官有普遍性,但发育水平有差异;第三个因素,儿童的认知发展有普遍性,但存在的某些差异能促进或限制语言获得;第四个因素是儿童与成人的语言交际、成人的语言教援和儿童相应的模仿学习。以及儿童本身的选择性和主动创造性。总之,儿童的语言获得是在人脑和语言器官发育和认知发展的基础上,在与成人和其他儿童的交际过程中,经过成人的言语教授(示范、强化、扩展和激励)和儿童有选择的模仿学习,并经概括而成的。因此,我们不能否认人脑和语言器官、认知发展的作用;同样,我们也不能否认成人言语教授和儿童模仿学习的作用,以及儿童本身在语言获得过程中表现在选择和概括两个方面的主动性和创造性的作用。
初生到三岁儿童言语发展记录的初步分析
吴天敏,
心理学报 , 1979,
Abstract: 我们用纵向法对五个婴儿从初生到三岁这一期间的言语发展作了记录(采用录音和文字记录),其中三个男孩、两个女孩。但这五个婴儿的记录并不都全,有的缺某一个时期)。记录用两种方式:一种是隔一定时间(一周或更长些日子)作一次记录,每次约半小时。为了使儿童比较自然,不影响他们发音或说话,我们尽可能事先和儿童熟悉,而且一
国外对儿童阅读能力与语言发展关系的研究
陈萍,陈仲庚,
心理科学进展 , 1999,
Abstract: 国外关于阅读能力发展的理论表明,儿重阅读能力发展可分为三个阶段。如果儿童不能顺利地通过第二阶段,其阅读能力发展将受到很大影响。语音技能则是第二阶段中影响阅读能力发展的一个重要语言因素。该文分析了国外关于语言对不同年龄儿童阅读能力发展的影响的研究,以及阅读障碍儿童的语言发展特点的研究,并介绍了关于各种语音技能间关系的研究。在此基础上探讨了对中国儿重的阅读能力与语言发展关系进行研究的思路。
A STUDY ON THE ACQUISITION OF PERSONAL PRONOUNS BY CHINESE-SPEAKING CHILDREN
汉语儿童人称代词的获得

Xu Zhengyuan,Min Ruifang,
,闵瑞芳

心理学报 , 1992,
Abstract: Two series of studies were undertaken. Study I, using longitudinal method,the speeches of five 0.5-3(1/2) yrs old children were recorded. The resultsindicated: Chinese-speaking children master personal pronouns step by step inthe period of 1(1/2)-3(1/2) yrs old. The order of mastering is from "I" "You" to "He".Study 2 investigated twenty eight 3-4 yrs old children's acquisition of per-sonal pronouns (singular number) by experimental method. The results showed:In the process of acquisition of personal pronouns,the fourth year is a rapidlydeveloping period. In this age children have a good command of personalpronouns. On the basis of the above research, the characterisitics and laws ofchild's acquisition of personal pronouns and language universalitywere exploredand generalized.
3—6岁幼儿控制自己行为能力的发展特点和影响发展的因素
,吴念阳,闵瑞芳
心理学报 , 1987,
Abstract: 本文对3—6岁幼儿在不同活动中和不同语言指示下控制自己行为的能力进行了研究。实验的结果表明:幼儿在有兴趣的活动中,容易控制自己的行为。成人给予明确具体的语言指示,或对其活动加以组织,对三岁幼儿控制自己行为的能力不起什么作用,对四岁以上幼儿才逐渐起作用,这种作用随着年龄增长而增大。成人单纯以语言来加强动机作用对各年龄组幼儿均无作用;但动机与一定的角色情境相结合,则有显著效果。由此可见,幼儿有意控制自己行为的能力是逐步发展的。因此,为提高幼儿控制自己行为的能力,对不同年龄的幼儿应采取不同的措施。
INITIAL WORD ACQUISITION IN CHILDREN AND ITS PROCESS
儿童最初词汇的获得及其过程

Chen Ping,Xu Zhengyuan,
陈萍
,

心理学报 , 1993,
Abstract: We have traced and made research on the process of acquiring early words of two children. The results show that (1) In the development of the child's early pronunciation, syllables grew in quantity, uttered with increa- sing discriminability, producing continuous syllables, gradually developing voluntariness and meaning. (2) The process of acquiring early words is a process in which continuous syllables are gradually substituted by meaningful words. According to the changes of percentages and functions in communi- cation of both continuous syllables and meaningful words, the child's process of acquiring early words may be divided into three stages, each of which is characterized by distinctive properties. (3) The early words of two children have had great accordance in the composition of parts of speech and in 0heir functioning. Besides, on the basis of the above results, in combination of individual differences in children, we also discussed tentatively the factors affecting the child's acquisition of early words and the possible relationships between these factors in such a process.
国外对儿童阅读能力与语言发展关系的研究
陈萍,陈仲庚,
心理科学进展 , 1999,
Abstract: ?国外关于阅读能力发展的理论表明,儿重阅读能力发展可分为三个阶段。如果儿童不能顺利地通过第二阶段,其阅读能力发展将受到很大影响。语音技能则是第二阶段中影响阅读能力发展的一个重要语言因素。该文分析了国外关于语言对不同年龄儿童阅读能力发展的影响的研究,以及阅读障碍儿童的语言发展特点的研究,并介绍了关于各种语音技能间关系的研究。在此基础上探讨了对中国儿重的阅读能力与语言发展关系进行研究的思路。
ACQUISITION OF LANGUAGE IN 11-14 MONTHS OLD CHILDREN-ADULT''''S TEACHING AND CHILDREN''''S IMITATING
11—14个月儿童的语言获得——成人的言语教授和儿童的模仿学习

Xu Zhengyuan,Guo Xiaochao,
,郭小朝

心理学报 , 1992,
Abstract: The analysis of case records indicates that children acquire initial words at 11-14 months. Words that children get first are nouns and verbs which link with daily life and activities,then comes onomatopes. 87.5% of words and expressions children acquire in this period origi- nates from adult's teaching and children's relevant imitations. Generally adult's teaching matches with the situation and has high selection. Be- sides, children's learning is not simply imitation. Initiative and crea- tiveness is observed in the process of learning. This determines the role of adult's teaching to a certain extent. The results of this study show the factors and process of children's language acquisition.
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