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青海乡域中小学教室内学生冬季的热舒适性
Thermal comfort of students in rural primary and secondary schools in winter in Qinghai province

王登甲,王晗旭,刘艳,,刘加平
- , 2017, DOI: 10.11835/j.issn.1674-4764.2017.01.006
Abstract: 对青海乡域4所典型中小学校10间教室冬季室内温湿度、风速、黑球温度等热环境参数进行现场测试,同时对420余名青少年学生的衣着情况、热感觉评价等进行了主观问卷调查。对测试和调查结果进行统计分析,得到实测和预测热中性温度分别为13.8和14.5℃,热期望温度为16.2℃,90%的学生感到满意的舒适温度范围为15.8~18.7℃。在当地寒冷的气候条件、学生衣着习惯、心理期望及生理特性等因素影响下,中小学生形成了对偏冷环境的适应性,提出可利用适应性PMV模型(aPMV)对中小学生平均热感觉进行准确预测。可为乡域中小学教室冬季热环境设计提供依据。
The subjective questionnaires were conducted on dressing condition and thermal sensation for more than 420 students of 10 classrooms in 4 rural primary and secondary schools in Qinghai. At the same time, the indoor and outdoor parameters were measured, such as temperature and relative humidity, air speed and globe temperature etc. The results showed that the measured and predicted thermal neutral temperature were 13.8℃ and 14.5℃, respectively. The preferred temperature was 16.2℃, and the thermal comfort temperature range accepted by 90% students was 15.8℃~18.7℃. Students had the adaptability to partial cold environment under the facts of cold climate conditions, dressing habit, psychological expectation and physical characters. Adaptive PMV model (aPMV) was proposed to predict students' mean thermal Sensation. It could provide basis for the design of indoor environment in rural primary and secondary classrooms in winter.
中国商品出口市场的有效组合
The efficient mixes of China’s commodity export markets


- , 2015, DOI: 10.11835/j.issn.1008-5831.2015.03.003
Abstract: 出口企业之间的协调失灵是一国出口波动的原因之一,因此政府需要采取必要的干预措施。为了降低出口收入增长率的波动水平,可以借鉴Markowitz模型的方法,同时使用相对方差衡量波动风险并构建出口市场组合模型。根据该模型和2000-2012年的中国商品出口数据,可以计算中国商品出口市场的有效组合。研究结果表明:中国应该大幅度地增加对亚洲其他市场(亚洲15经济体以外的地区)、非洲和拉丁美洲的出口份额,并且,这种调整方向在理论上和实践上均具有可行性。
Export fluctuations are partly the result of coordination failure, some government intervention may be necessary. By borrowing the modern portfolio theory for selecting optimal export markets mix and better measuring export risks, this paper argues that it is theoretically feasible to propose a new index named relative variance as an alternative to variance and construct a model of export markets mix. According to this model and the data on China’s export, we calculate the efficient mixes of China’s export markets, which indicate that China should increase exports share from the rest of Asia (outside the 15 Asian economies), Africa and Latin America. And this adjustment is feasible both in theory and practice.
基于尖锥网络分析法的企业突发事故灾难应急能力综合评价研究
Research on the corporate emergency response capability evaluation based on cone-ANP

张吉军,
- , 2015, DOI: 10.11835/j.issn.1008-5831.2015.06.013
Abstract: 对企业突发事故灾难应急能力进行综合评价是加强应急能力建设的基础。文章针对现有研究中评价指标体系不完整、权重分配不合理、评价模型不能充分考虑评价中的不确定性与均衡性问题,首先分析了企业突发事故灾难全过程与全系统应急能力的综合构成;其次通过确定各单项应急能力间的相互支配关系,构建了区别于传统层次结构的尖锥网络结构评价指标体系并求取权重;最后基于几何加权算法,提出了基于二元联系数的组合几何加权评价模型,实现了对企业突发事故灾难全过程与全系统完整应急能力的定性与定量相结合的综合评价,为企业建立应急能力综合评价机制、提高应急能力水平提供方法指导与参考依据。
Getting a scientific evaluation of corporate emergency response capability is the premise of exploring ways to strengthen it. In the existing research, evaluation index system is not complete, weight distribution is not reasonable; the evaluation model can not give full consideration to the evaluation of uncertainty and balance. To solve those problems, first of all, this paper analyzes the whole process and the whole system of corporate emergency response capability; Secondly, by identifying individual dominance relationship between emergency ability, based on C-ANP, the authors build a cone network structure of evaluation index system which is different from the structure of traditional hierarchy and network; Finally, they propose a evaluation model based geometric weighting algorithm and dual connection number, and through an example, get a static and dynamic evaluation results ,which can provide the basis for enterprises to improve emergency response capabilities.
脉冲地震作用下千米级斜拉桥减震设计方法
Research on seismic-reduction for cable-stayed bridges over kilometers under pulse earthquake action

韩振,叶爱君
- , 2018, DOI: 10.11835/j.issn.1674-4764.2018.04.016
Abstract: 为研究近断层脉冲地震动作用下千米级斜拉桥的减震设计方法,以某漂浮型千米级斜拉桥为背景,建立了有限元模型,选择了典型的近断层脉冲型地震动,同时设计了3种减震体系,在塔梁之间分别采用弹性连接装置、流体粘滞阻尼器以及两者的组合装置。随后对模型进行了非线性动力分析,分析了脉冲效应、减震体系的设计参数和减震效果,结果表明:脉冲长周期放大结构反应,剪切波速不影响结构反应,组合装置的减震效果最好。最后,建议了基于目标减震率的减震体系设计流程。
To study the seismic design method for kilometer-scale cable-stayed bridge under near-fault impulse ground motion, a finite element model was established. The typical near-fault impulse ground motion was selected, and three damping systems were designed. The elastic connection device, the fluid viscous damper and the combination device of the two were used between the towers and beams respectively. Nonlinear dynamic analysis of the model was then carried out, based on which the impulse effect, the design parameters of the damping system and the damping effect were analyzed. The results show that the impulse long-period amplifies the structural response while the shear wave velocity has no effect on the structural response. In addition, the damping effect of the combination device is the best. Finally, the design flow chart for the damping system based on the target damping rate was proposed.
学生公平感对学生满意度的影响研究
Study on the influence of student fairness on student satisfaction

研川,刘佳
- , 2015, DOI: 10.11835/j.issn.1008-5831.2015.04.026
Abstract: 高校在开展学生工作中注重培养大学生的公平感,有利于进一步了解学生的各项需求,提高工作的针对性,切实提高学生对学生工作的满意度,实现高校全面培养人才的目标。本研究通过对高校学生工作中,学生公平感对学生满意度影响的实证分析,得知在高校学生工作中,学生公平感的四个维度对学生满意度均有正向影响,其中,人际公平对学生满意度的影响最大,程序公平次之,结果公平和信息公平最小。文章依据研究结果提出了提高学生公平感的对策建议。
Emphasis on the cultivation of student fairness in student work in Colleges is conducive to the further understanding of the needs of students, to strengthen the pertinence of work, to effectively improve the student satisfaction, and realize the overall goal of training talents. This research empirically studies the influence of student fairness on student satisfaction in student work in Colleges. The results show that: each of the four dimensions of student fairness has a positive effect on student satisfaction in student work in Colleges, in which the impact of interpersonal justice on student satisfaction is greatest, the impact of procedure justice is greater, the impact of the fairness and information fairness is smallest. According to the research results, we put forward some countermeasures and suggestions about improving student fairness.
基于人行为影响的住区建筑多主体集成能耗模型
Multi-agent based energy model for domestic duildings based on occupant behavior

孙禹,冷红,存妍
- , 2017, DOI: 10.11835/j.issn.1674-4764.2017.01.007
Abstract: 在城市建筑节能研究中,政府常常依赖城市能源与碳排放模型工具制定并评估节能策略。而当前的城市建筑能耗模型受限于开发技术等因素,尚存在诸多不足,例如,考虑人行为对建筑能耗的影响,建立行为、日常活动及与环境相关的综合能耗模型。关于此类模型合理的数学形式、参数选择的方法以及不同行为的模拟方式等问题还尚待进一步研究。采用多主体(Multi-Agent)建模技术,设计集成建筑能耗模型,以住区中的居民作为模型中活动的主体,模拟使用者行为习惯、活动对建筑能耗的影响;采用ISO 13790标准模拟建筑的供热和降温需求,并在集成环境中设计统一的描述框架,以相对独立的环境模拟、行为模拟模块形式进行交互,实现热环境模拟和基于主体活动的设备能耗模拟的有机结合。研究表明,住区居民的用能行为是影响城市建筑能耗密度变化的重要因素,实现对住区主体行为特征的引导是实现城市建筑节能目标的有效途径。
Energy model is one of the most significant tool to investigate building energy saving, which has been widely used by government in energy policy evaluation. However, there are still many limitations in current research technology and methodology. Especially the interaction between energy consumption and occupant behavior in daily activities should be further discussed. Lots of the research method and conception have not been well expanded by modeling and quantizing. Agent Based Domestic Community Energy Model is proposed to develop the simulation framework of energy consumption in the stock of domestic buildings. The occupants are taken as the agent to simulate the occupant behavior factors that influence building energy-saving potential under various policy scenarios. The proposed model can associate the standard ISO-13790 for calculation the cooling and heating load, but also incorporate the interaction of agent behavior and energy use, which realize the organic combination of environment and behavior simulation. The results demonstrate that the agent behavior is one of the significant factors that influence building energy use intensity, and strengthening the guidance of occupant behavior is a scientific and effective way to achieve the goal of building energy efficiency.
Cu2+对温州软粘土电阻率特性影响的试验研究
Tests on electrical resistivity characteristics of Wenzhou soft clay with Cu2+

吉方,余闯,廖饶平,朱超鹏
- , 2018, DOI: 10.11835/j.issn.1674-4764.2018.06.012
Abstract: 温州制革、电镀等轻工业发达,废水中Cu2+含量较高,多处地下水和土壤受到污染。选取典型温州软黏土,将土样重塑,加入不同浓度的Cu2+和适量水泥进行固化,通过测试不同土样电阻率来研究Cu2+对土体性能的影响。电阻率测试在改装的一维压缩固结试验中进行,压缩中部分土样电阻率变化不显著,但可量测到压缩过程中电阻率的变化规律。试验结果表明:电阻率可以很好地评估加入水泥之后土体性质的改变,在实际工程中可以用来反映土体的污染程度;土体在Cu2+含量和含水量很高时,不宜采用电阻率法评估土体污染压缩的过程。
The previously developed industry has contaminated part of groundwater and soils in Wenzhou with high concentration of Cu2+ in waste water, such as tannery, electroplating and etc. To study the characteristics of typical Wenzhou soft clay with Cu2+, the soil samples are remodeled to test the electrical resistivity with different concentrations of Cu2+ and reasonable amount of cement for consolidation. Electrical resistivity tests were carried out via the self-designed one-dimensional consolidation compression apparatus. The resistivity variation can be directly observed during the compression process. The testing results indicate that:while the concentration of Cu2+ and water in soil is high, electrical resistivity measurement should not be applied to assess the compression process of the soil. However, this measurement is a good indication for characteristics changes in soil after adding cement. Therefore the electrical resistivity might be taken as an effective means to estimate the degree of contamination of soil in practical engineering.
红层泥岩桩岩接触面本构模型试验及数值模拟
Interface constitutive model test and numerical simulation of red mudstone pile-rock

胡启军,,徐亚辉,石仁丹,张宇浩
- , 2017, DOI: 10.11835/j.issn.1674-4764.2017.03.016
Abstract: 桩-岩(土)接触面力学特性的研究是桩基承载机理研究的基础。通过红层泥岩桩岩接触面大型直剪试验,研究了红层泥岩桩岩接触面的力学特性,结果表明:接触面剪应力先随剪切位移增大而增大,在达到峰值后,剪应力随着剪切位移增大而降低,并最终趋于稳定值,应力应变曲线呈现出应变软化的特征。根据剪切试验结果,推导出桩岩接触面应变软化本构方程。利用fish语言对FLAC3D中自带的理想弹塑性接触单元进行二次开发,并应用开发的模型对桩岩接触面直剪试验进行了数值模拟,分析剪应力与剪切位移之间的关系,证明了该本构能够较好地模拟接触面间的应变软化特性。
The pile-rock(soil) interface mechanical behavior was the basis of pile foundation bearing mechanics. Firstly, the mechanical property of the interface was investigated through the laboratory large direct shear test of red mudstone pile-rock interface. The results indicated that the shear stress-strain curve presented strain softening behavior. The shear stress was increasing with the shear strain initially, and when the shear stress came to a peak, the shear stress was decreasing with the shear strain and finally reached a steady. Subsequently, the constitutive equation was deduced based on the interface mechanical property, the ideal elastic-plastic contact element in FLAC3D was further developed through fish language. Additionally, the direct shear test of red mudstone was simulated according to the interface constitutive model, and the relationship of shear stress and shear displacement between the pile and soil were analyzed which proved that the constitutive model showed good performance on simulating strain softening features of the interface.
土体抗剪强度指标变异水平对边坡稳定安全系数取值的影响
Influence of variation levels of soil strength indexes on the value of slope stability safety factor

骆飞,罗强,良潍,吕杨,孔德惠
- , 2015, DOI: 10.11835/j.issn.1674-4764.2015.04.010
Abstract: 针对传统的边坡稳定极限平衡方法不能考虑土体抗剪强度指标变异性影响的问题,基于极限状态的概率分析原理,采用Monte-Carlo法对均质路堤边坡的稳定性开展了可靠度计算,讨论了稳定安全系数一定的条件下边坡失效概率随土体抗剪强度指标变异水平的变化规律,分析了安全系数与边坡可靠指标的对应关系及其随土体抗剪强度指标变异水平的变化特征。研究表明:边坡可靠度受土体抗剪强度指标变异性影响显著,呈现出随土体抗剪强度指标变异水平提高而急剧减小的趋势;为保证边坡具有相同的可靠性,安全系数的取值应与土体抗剪强度指标的变异性相适应,据此提出了基于可靠指标和土体抗剪强度指标变异水平的安全系数取值原则及其对应的三参数函数关系式。
Traditional limit equilibrium methods of slope stability fails to consider the influence of soil strength indexes variability. Based on probability analysis principle of limit state, Monte-Carlo method is used to calculate the reliability of stability of homogeneous embankment slope. And with constant safety coefficient, changes of slope failure possibility with different levels of soil strength indexes are studied. The corresponding relationship between safety coefficient and reliability index of the slope and changes of safety factor with variation levels of soil strength indexes are analyzed. Results show that: the slope reliability is affected by soil strength indexes variability significantly, indicating sharp decreases with increase of soil strength indexes variation levels; in order to get the slope the identical reliability, safety coefficient should be changed according to soil strength indexes variability. The safety coefficient should be changed according to reliability index and soil strength indexes variation levels and based on which three parameters function is put forward.
焊接加固热作用对工形截面压弯钢构件承载性能的影响
Analysis of welding heat effect on load-carrying behavior of I section steel beam-columns strengthened by welding

,王元清,戴国欣,张天申,石永久
- , 2016, DOI: 10.11835/j.issn.1674-4764.2016.04.015
Abstract: 为研究焊接加固热作用及不同初始负载对工字形压弯钢柱承载性能的影响,基于考虑热影响的热结构耦合分析方法进行了热源模型热输入改进,并考虑初始几何缺陷、初始残余应力及摩擦等,完成了不同负载下焊接加固的3个工字形压弯钢柱的模拟分析。研究了焊接位移时程、腹板应力应变重分布及荷载位移关系,通过有限元分析与相应试验结果对比验证,进而获得了试验法获得的焊接温度场、翼缘与加固板间的焊接应力应变重分布以及翼缘边缘屈服承载力等结果,并将承载力结果与规范计算结果对比,考察了现有设计方法。结果表明,焊接顺序决定焊接变形的发展过程,焊接热输入和初始负载共同决定持载焊接的位移变化范围和焊接残余变形的大小;初始负载越大,应力应变重分布往偏心受力方向发展更多,承载力越低,而初始残余应力不影响极限承载力;采用考虑热影响的有限元方法具有一定可行性和总体安全性,规范设计方法仍有可提升空间。
In order to investigate the influence of reinforcement welding heat effect and different initial load on load-carrying behavior of I section steel beam-columns, three specimens strengthened by welding while under different load were simulated. Based on the thermal-structural coupling method considering heat effect, the analysis improved thermal input of heat source model and also considered initial geometric imperfection, initial residual stress and friction. Time history of displacement during welding, web stress-strain redistribution and load-displacement relationship were discussed, and meanwhile the effectiveness of the finite element analyses(FEA) were verified by comparing the FEA results and test results. Furthermore, welding temperature field, stress-strain redistribution between flange and strengthening plate and flange margin yield capacity, which could not be measured by test, were acquired. And by comparison of bearing capacity results and code calculation results, the present design methods were discussed. The results showed that welding strengthening procedure decided the development of welding residual deformation, while thermal input and initial load effected the range of displacement change during welding under load and magnitude of welding residual deformation. Higher initial load propelled the development of stress-strain redistribution toward the eccentric loading direction, thus leading to lower bearing capacity. However, initial residual stress had little effect on ultimate capacity. FEA method considering heat effect showed certain practicability and overall security, and code design method remained space for improvement still.
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