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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 350277 matches for " 花棒 沙生灌木 耐逆性 固沙造林 育种基地<br>Hedysarum scoparium Sandy shrub Stress tolerance Sand-fixation afforestation Breeding base "
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花棒生理生态研究及其展望
Research of Huabang(Hedysarum scoparium)Ecophysiology and Its Perspectives

金红宇,徐文娣,陈国雄
- , 2018, DOI: 10.7606/j.issn.1004-1389.2018.11.002
Abstract: 花棒(Hedysarum scoparium Fish. Et Mey.),又名细枝岩黄耆,沙漠中豆科大灌木,固沙先锋植物,种子可食,嫩枝叶是优良饲草,对沙区生态建设与绿色发展具有重要意义。生理生态学研究揭示了花棒对沙漠环境的适应性机理,为其固沙造林和引种驯化提供了理论依据。近年来,花棒生理生态学研究取得了较大进展,在种子萌发方面,探明了果荚对“部分休眠”的物理限制作用、萌发所需环境条件、飞播及育苗的最佳时间;在生长发育发面,揭示了生长发育规律、繁殖策略、根际微生物及根瘤菌的促生作用;在耐逆性方面,发现了耐风蚀沙埋独特的克隆生长构型、C4途径生化亚型、耐旱光合生理及水分关系;在固沙造林方面,根据其生理生态学基础,提出了不同区域的合理布局和适宜密度,建立了固沙造林的成功案例。然而,花棒造林还存在一些问题,如耐盐性不够强、有病虫危害、易烂根等。针对这些问题,需要开展相应的生理机制和遗传育种研究,建立种质资源库,培育耐盐抗病虫害品种。花棒生理生态学进一步研究:比较不同沙区花棒的代谢组、转录组、基因组等组学特征,结合地理学和分子遗传学分析,揭示花棒在我国沙漠的进化历程。此外,花棒在沙区畜牧业、城镇园林绿化、食品与食用油等方面的开发利用研究亦具有广阔前景。
Huabang(Hedysarum scoparium Fish. Et Mey.)is a large leguminous shrub in sandy desert in China. It is a sand-fixation pioneer with edible seeds and newly growing shoots used for forage.H.scoparium is of great significance for ecological construction and green development in desert region. Ecophysiological research has revealed the adaptation mechanisms of huabang to sandy desert environment,which provides theoretical base for sand-fixation afforestation and domestication. Recently,huabang ecophysiological research has achieved great progresses.In seed germination,the physical limitation of pod on partial dormancy,the environmental conditions require for germination,and the time for aerial seeding and seedling nursery are verified. In growth and development,the characteristics of growth and development,reproductive strategies,and the growth promotion of rhizosphere microorganism and nodule bacteria are revealed. In stress tolerance,specific clone-growth patterns against sand erosion and bury,biochemical subtypes of C4 pathway,and drought-tolerance photosynthesis physiology and water relations are discovered. In sand-fixation afforestation,based on ecophysiological research,rational pattern and suitable density are proposed; some successful cases of sand-fixation afforestation are established. However,some problems remains for the sand-fixation afforestation,such as salt stress,insect and diseases damage,and root rot. To solve these problems,research of its physiological mechanisms and breeding are required; the establishment of huabang genetic bank and varieties with salt and biotic tolerance are needed. For further ecophysiological researches,the comparisons of metabolome,transcriptome,and genome of huabang from different sandy regions should be conducted; the evolution process of huabang in Chinese sandy desert should be revealed by the combination of ecophysiology with geography and molecular genetics. In addition,huabang has a great potential in developmental research on animal husbandry in sandy
Primary discussion on the genetic breeding of fine sand-fixed shrubs
浅谈优良固沙灌木的遗传育种

PAN Bo-Rong,
潘伯荣

中国生态农业学报 , 2001,
Abstract: 种植防风固沙植物是西北干旱、半干旱地区生态环境建设的重要措施,在缺水干旱区及沙漠化地区种植优良固沙灌木极为重要。提出建设优良固沙灌木的种源基地、无性系选择及采穗圃建设、种子园建设、杂交育种和非常规育种与常规育种结合等是开展优良固沙灌木遗传育种的有效途径。
A COUPLING MODEL OF WATER-HEAT MOVEMENT IN THE SOIL OF SAND-FIXATION AREA
植物固沙区土壤水热运移耦合模型研究

Jiachun Li,
姚德良
,李家春,沈卫明

力学学报 , 1996,
Abstract: Based on the Phillips & Vriès' theory, we have suggested a coupling model for simulating water-heat movement in the sand soil with vegetation. The effects of temperature and vegetation roots on the exchange of water and heat between atmosphere and land are firstly analyzed. Then, we have provided the formulae to estimate soil evaporation, canopy transpiration, water-absorbing rate of root system and heat flux in soil. A Crank-Nicolson difference scheme is constructed to solve nonlinear diffusion equation to...
环保固沙抑尘剂黄原胶接枝共聚物的制备与性能研究
程忻荃,张丽丹,齐干,赵浩
- , 2017, DOI: 10.13543/j.bhxbzr.2017.04.007
Abstract: 采用种子乳液聚合法,制备以黄原胶(XG)为接枝底物,丙烯酸甲酯(MA)和乙酸乙烯酯(VAc)为共聚单体的新型环保固沙抑尘剂。综合考察单体配比、乳化剂十二烷基苯磺酸钠(SDBS)用量、引发剂过硫酸铵(APS)用量、聚合温度以及接枝底物黄原胶用量等因素对聚合物乳液产品质量的影响。工艺优化结果表明,当单体质量配比(mMA:mVAc)为3:5,乳化剂、引发剂、接枝底物质量分数分别为5.0%、1.2%、4.0%,且聚合温度65 ℃时,固沙抑尘剂乳液的黏度、抗压强度、产品外观、流动性以及静置稳定性达到最佳。随后采用FT-IR、TG-DTA对产品进行表征,证明接枝底物与单体接枝成功,且产物具有优异的保水性。最后对环保固沙抑尘剂的应用性能及其对植物出芽率的影响进行了研究,表征测试结果表明,该环保固沙抑尘剂具备良好的耐水性和抗水蚀性,抗压强度能满足实际治沙需要,且具备一定的降解性。
Abstract:An environmental friendly sand-fixation & dust suppressant has been prepared by seed emulsion polymerization using xanthan gum (XG) as grafted substrate and methyl acrylate (MA) and vinyl acetate (VAc) as comonomers. The influences of the monomer ratio, the amount of emulsifier sodium dodecyl benzene sulfonate (SDBS), the amount of initiator ammonium persulfate (APS), the reaction temperature and the amount of xanthan gum (XG) on the quality of the polymer emulsion were studied. According to the results of the optimization experiments, when the monomer mass ratio (mMA:mVAc) was 3:5, the mass fraction of emulsifier, initiator and grafted substrate were 5.0%, 1.2% and 4.0% respectively, and the reaction temperature was 65 ℃, the viscosity, compressive strength, product appearance, fluidity and static stability of the sand-fixation & dust suppressant all reached their optimum values. FT-IR spectroscopy and TG-DTA showed that the co-monomers were successfully grafted on to the substrate. The product also had excellent water retention. Finally, the application performance of the environmental friendly sand-fixation & dust suppressant and its influence on seed germination were studied. The experimental results show that this XG grafted sand-fixation & dust suppressant with a certain degree of degradation has good water resistance and water erosion resistance. Also, its compressive strength can satisfy the practical requirements of sand control.
Effects of Living Salix gordejevii Barrier on Wind-breaking and Sand-fixation in Hunshandake Sandland
浑善达克沙地黄柳活沙障防风固沙效益的研究

ZHANG Rui-lin,LIU Guo-hou,CUI Xiuping,
张瑞麟
,刘果厚,崔秀萍

中国沙漠 , 2006,
Abstract: 通过研究浑善达克沙地流动沙地上黄柳活沙障的防风固沙效益,对设置3 a后的不同类型的活沙障进行测定和分析,得出如下结论:沙障设置3 a后,沙地趋于固定,障内植物种类明显增多;设置黄柳活沙障的区域内下垫面粗糙度显著增大,风速明显减弱,而且黄柳网格沙障降低风速的能力较带状沙障强,其顺序为:4 m×4 m黄柳网格沙障(6 m×6 m黄柳网格沙障(间距4 m的黄柳带状沙障(间距6 m的黄柳带状沙障(流沙;当旷野平均风速为7.86 m.s-1时,只有流沙和间距6 m的黄柳带状沙障起沙,其他几类活沙障内均不起沙。
民勤县绿洲边缘固沙林防风蚀效应研究
Windbreak Effect of Sand-Fixation Forest on the Edge of Oasis in Minqin

王彦武,罗玲,张峰,陈天林
- , 2018, DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1001-7461.2018.04.10
Abstract: 在民勤绿洲边缘,以林龄为30 a左右的柽柳林、白刺林和不同林龄的梭梭林为研究对象,测定和分析固沙林的防风固沙效应。结果表明,固沙林的防风固沙效应取决于树种类型及树龄,且保护效应在迎风面和背风面差异显著。不同树种固沙林降低风沙流流量和减少风蚀深度的效应均表现为30年生梭梭林>柽柳林>40年生梭梭林>20年生梭梭林>白刺>裸沙地,且随着梭梭林龄的增长,30 a林龄时达到最大;各固沙林地背风面地表粗糙度变化范围在0.57~4.18 cm,以30年生梭梭林最大,白刺最小,且均大于裸沙地,背风面距离林木越远,地表粗糙度逐渐减小;梭梭林背风面各测点的风积厚度、风速降低幅度和地表粗糙度的均值随着林龄的增长分别由0.21 cm、12.66%、2.25 cm增大到0.5 cm、20.41%、3.38 cm;植株的高度对防风效果有显著影响,越接近固沙林中部,对风速的影响越大,林木背风面中部的风速降低幅度是顶端处的1.16~3.99倍。梭梭林与其他固沙林相比防风固沙效果明显,是当地值得推广种植的防风固沙树种。
The stands of about 30 years of Tamarix,Nitraria and the different ages of Haloxylon forests were studied to determine and analyze the windbreak and sand-fixation effects at the edge of Minqin Oasis.The results showed that the windbreak and sand fixation effects of sand fixation depended on the type and age of the tree species.The protective effect had significant difference between windward and leeward.Effects of different tree species on reducing the wind-sand flow rate and wind erosion depth were in the order of 30-year-old Haloxylon>Tamarix>40-year-old Haloxylon forest>20-year-old Haloxylon forest >Nitraria>bare sandy land.Haloxylon ammodendron reached the maximum effects at the age of 30.The surface roughness of sand fixing forest leeward changed in the range of 0.57-4.18 cm,30-year-old Haloxylon was the maximum and the smallest was Nitraria,and all of them were larger than those in the bare sand.The surface roughness gradually decreased with the trees farther away the leeward face.The means of wind product thickness,the decreasing amplitude of wind speed and surface roughness of the measured points in the leeward side of Haloxylon were increased from 0.21 cm,12.66%,2.25 cm to 0.5 cm,20.41% and 3.38 cm,respectively.The plant height had a significant impact the windbreak effect.The closer to the middle of the sand fixing forest,the greater of the impact on the wind speed.The decreasing amplitude of wind speed in the middle of the forest leeward was 1.16-3.99 times lower than the top.Compared to other forests,Haloxylon forest was the best choice to be promoted in Minqin Oasis for its significant windproof effect
Changes of plant diversity,biomass,and soil nutrients in cutting slash of artificial sand-fixation forest after fallowing and natural restoration
固沙林采伐迹地撂荒后自然恢复的植物多样性、生物量与土壤养分含量的变化

WU Xiang-yun,LU Hui,WANG Xiao-jiao,
吴祥云
,卢慧,王晓娇

生态学杂志 , 2007,
Abstract: 采用样方法对辽宁章古台地区樟子松固沙林采伐迹地撂荒后1~5 年内自然恢复植被组成及多样性特征进行了定位研究.结果表明:采伐迹地自然恢复形成的自然植被群落共有49种植物,分属于26个科,以菊科和禾本科植物最为丰富.1 年、2 年、3 年和5 年采伐迹地植物群落的Simpson多样性指数分别为0.681、0.792、0.845和0.870,Shannon-Wiener信息统计指数、Pielou均匀度指数的变化趋势与Simpson优势度指数基本相似.5年后植被总生物量由1.351 t·hm-2增加到9.745 t·hm-2,撂荒2年时植被系统开始产生枯落物.随着植被恢复时间增加,死地被物生物量从恢复2年时的0.824 t·hm-2增加到5年时的1.403 t·hm-2.与采伐前相比,撂荒使采伐迹地土壤表层(0~15 cm)有机质含量和土壤各层的养分含量明显增加.撂荒具有较早归还凋落物和增加土壤养分的能力.
Fuzzy Overall Judgment on Experimental Effects of Water Usage under Different Assemble Patterns in Shapotou Area
水分利用状况试验效果的模糊综合评判

唐海萍,王颖,李新宇
系统工程理论与实践 , 2004,
Abstract: 本文将模糊综合评判方法应用于沙坡头人工生态防护林体系中固沙植物水分利用效率的研究.对各实验样地不同层次的水分状况构造隶属函数,根据根系分布范围给出权重因子集合,对两种固沙植物油蒿(Artemisia ordosica Krash.)和柠条(Caragana korshinskii Kom.)在8种不同配置格局下的水分利用效率排序和评价,从中得出最优配置格局.评判结果与地面调查数据基本吻合,为模糊综合评判方法在生态学实践中的应用提供了有力的佐证.
Decline regularity and causes of Pinus sylvestris var.mongolica plantation on sandy land
樟子松人工固沙林衰退的规律和原因

WU Xiangyun,JIANG Fengqi,LI Xiaodan,XUE Yang,QIU Sufen,
吴祥云
,姜凤岐,李晓丹,薛杨,邱素芬

应用生态学报 , 2004,
Abstract: The study showed that the decline of Pinus sylvestris var. mongolica plantation out of its natural distribution area was a phenomenon of premature senility. The infected harm of shoot blight was the direct cause of Pinus sylvestris var. mongolica dying, but wasn't the basic reason. The decline of Pinus sylvestris var. mongolica was caused by the interaction of biological and other factors, which was "the third disease" beyond infectious and non-infectious diseases, namely, "decline disease of forest". Climate difference, improper management, unbalanced usage of soil water, and high content of N settled from air were the inducing factors, among which, climate difference and unbalanced usage of soil water were the main ones, while insect harm and shoot blight were the promoting factors.
Ecological effect of windbreaks and sand-fixation forests on Heihe River valley——A case study of Gaotai County,Gansu Province
黑河流域防风固沙林生态效益研究——以甘肃省高台县为例

LIAO Kong-Tai,YAN Zi-Zhu,MAN Duo-Qing,ZHANG Jin-Chun,LI De-Lu,
廖空太
,严子柱,满多清,张锦春,李得禄

中国生态农业学报 , 2007,
Abstract: 通过对黑河流域高台地区防风固沙林体系的定位观测,分析了该区防风固沙林20年来的生态效益变化。研究结果表明:在防风固沙效益方面,花棒×柠条锦鸡儿×梭梭混交林最好,梭梭纯林(6m×9m)最差;防风固沙林建立20年后,林内土壤粗粒沙(1.0~0.5mm)含量降低66.4%,而<0.25mm的细沙和粉(黏)沙含量由12.8%提高至72.0%,土壤有机质含量提高30.1%,土壤全N增加48.3%,全P增加76.3%,全K增加58.0%,土壤pH值和全盐量均有降低。20年来防风固沙林的防风固沙效益和改土作用显著。
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