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Using the ripe Populus euphratica Oliv. seed from the lower reaches of Tarim River as plant materials, seed vigor in two different storage conditions and under different water-stress was determined in laboratory conditions. The results showed that the seed of Populus euphratica Oliv. was not resistant to storage, and that aging of the seeds could be effectively extended in the storage of sealed under 4？C. Seed germination had certain inhibitive effect in different concentrations of PEG. Seed germination rate and germination potential presented an obvious downward trend with the increase of the water-stress intensity. Because seed germination rate and germination potential remained relatively at a higher level under 26% PEG treat, so the 26% PEG could be as a critical concentration of seed vigor evaluation.