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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 8475 matches for " 玉米田养鹅 "
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西藏东南缘农牧复合系统—玉米田放牧鹅的生物多样性和经济效益分析
沙志鹏,王军峰,关法春
草地学报 , 2014, DOI: 10.11733/j.issn.1007-0435.2014.01.034
Abstract: 对玉米(Zeamays)田养鹅和传统玉米种植(CK)下的田间杂草进行调查,统计分析各杂草群落中杂草的密度、生物多样性指数以及群落的相似度系数,并对比2种处理的经济效益。结果表明玉米田养鹅处理的物种丰富度指数、优势度指数和多样性指数分别比对照处理高11.4,0.07和0.2,而Pielou均匀度指数比对照处理低0.01,不同处理下杂草群落的相似性系数为0.77;玉米田养鹅处理每hm2的净收入为13984元,比对照增加7063元。玉米田养鹅处理方式不仅维持了较高的生物多样性,并且经济收益更高。
农牧一体化下杂草生物多样性及玉米生产效益研究
Effects of agro-pastoral integration on weed biodiversity in field and maize production

边步云,关法春,张永锋,程犇,仝淑萍
- , 2018,
Abstract: 为研究农牧一体化对杂草生物多样性的影响,通过延军农场农牧一体化长期定位试验,采用田间对比试验方法,对放牧前后田间杂草种类、密度、盖度和地上生物量以及玉米产量进行调查研究,分析农牧一体化生产方式对杂草生物多样性及玉米生产效益的影响。结果表明:放牧前,农牧一体化(API)理杂草总密度是对照(CK)的1.41倍,且杂草优势种单一且相对多度分配不均匀;API杂草地上生物量比CK高出18.12 kg/hm2;API杂草群落的Shannon-Wiener多样性指数(H')、Pielou均匀度指数(E)、Simpson优势度指数(D)和Margalef丰富度指数(DMG)分别是CK的1.09、0.92、1.05和1.08倍。放牧后,API和CK杂草总密度分别减少77.00%和23.10%,杂草群落地上生物量依次分别下降94.18%和78.17%,故田间放养鹅可将田间16.01%杂草资源化,提高杂草生产力;API玉米产量是CK的0.92倍,减产所带来的经济损失达2 443.51元/hm2,鹅肉产品输出对经济总收入的贡献率高达48.74%,折合为25 922.80元/hm2;API的产投比(2.87)是CK(2.49)的1.15倍,API能够提高生产效益。因此,API处理使用鹅来控制杂草并将杂草资源化,提高生产力和生物多样性,可实现较高经济效益。
Through the long-term positioning experiment of "Agro-pastoral integration(API)" on Yanjun Farm. Comparative field experiments were conducted to analyze the impact of agro-pastoral integration production methods on weed biodiversity and corn production efficiency. The weed species, density, coverage, aboveground biomass, and corn yield in the field pre-grazing and post-grazing were investigated. The results showed that:The total weed density API treatment was 1.41 times of that of control (CK) pre-grazing, and the weed dominant species were unitary and its relative abundance was not evenly distributed; The weeds aboveground-biomass of API was 18.12 kg/hm2 higher than that of CK; The Shannon-Wiener diversity index (H'), Pielou evenness index (E), Simpson dominance index (D) and Margalef richness index(DMG) of API weed communities were 1.09, 0.92, 1.05 and 1.08 times of CK, respectively; The total densities of API post-grazing and CK were reduced by 77.00% and 23.10%, respectively. The aboveground-biomass of weed community decreased by 94.18% and 78.17%. Therefore, geese transformed the 16.01% weeds in the field into resources and improve weed productivity. The corn yield in API field was 0.92 times of CK, and the economic loss caused by the reduction of production amounted was up to 2 443.51 yuan/hm2; Goose product output converted to 25 922.80 yuan/hm2, it contributed to the total economic income as high as 48.74%; API investment ratio (2.87) is 1.15 times of that of CK (2.49). In conclusion, API system by raising geese in corn fields to control weeds in API system, converted weeds into resources, improved the productivity and biodiversity, and achieved high economic efficiency.
“玉米田养鹅”农田生态系统下的土壤温度影响机制
Influence mechanism of the farmland ecosystem of “Raising geese in corn field” on soil temperature

仝淑萍,关法春,曹舰艇,张宇阳,边步云,程犇
- , 2017,
Abstract: 为了解农牧一体化下"玉米田养鹅"生产模式的土壤温度影响机制,通过对比试验方法进行田间试验,结果表明:玉米田养鹅处理杂草群落平均密度为171.33株/m2,是对照密度(11.11株/m2)的15.42倍,处理间差异极显著(P<0.01;n=9),该处理下杂草Shannon-Wiener多样性指数为1.76,Simpson多样性指数为0.77,均高于对照;玉米田养鹅处理的地上生物量为386.30 g/m2,是对照(5.67 g/m2)的68.13倍,处理间差异极显著(P<0.01;n=9),同时玉米田养鹅处理的盖度为90.56%,是对照(7.22%)的12.54倍,处理间差异极显著(P<0.01;n=9)。在白天土壤温度的变化过程中,玉米田养鹅处理较高的地上生物量和丰富的地表植被使得田间地下生物生理代谢活动旺盛,土壤呼吸作用增强,土壤CO2呼吸通量增加,高达308.64 mg/(m2·h),显著高于对照的234.90 mg/(m2·h)(P<0.05;n=9)。因此,在试验期间白天光照不足,地表接受光照辐射有限的情况下,生物代谢活动产生的热量是影响土壤温度的主导因素,白天的土壤温度高于对照。在夜间土壤温度的变化中,玉米田养鹅处理5~15 cm的土壤含水量为16.14%,显著高于对照1.27%(P<0.05;n=9),水的良好导热能力促进了土壤的散热,使得玉米田养鹅处理表层土壤夜间散热较快,以致夜间该处理下的土壤温度低于对照。因此,在"玉米田养鹅"模式生产过程的前期,生物代谢活动和土壤含水量是影响土壤温度变化的主要因素。
The principle of soil temperature change of agro-pastoral integration was studied in order to clarify factors and mechanism of soil temperature under "Raising geese in corn field" mode.Field experiments were conducted by using comparative method.The results showed that the mean density of weed communities in maize field was 171.33 plants/m2,which was 15.42 times of the control density (11.11 plants/m2),and the difference between treatments was extremely significant (P<0.01;n=9).Shannon-Wiener diversity index was 1.76 and Simpson diversity index was 0.77,which were all higher than those in the control.The above ground biomass of maize field was 386.30 g/m2,which was 68.13 times of control (5.67 g/m2),and the difference between treatments was extremely significant (P<0.01;n=9).The coverage of maize field geese was 90.56%,which was 12.54 times of that of control treatment (7.22%),and the difference between treatments was extremely significant (P<0.01;n=9).The physiologic metabolic activities of underground biota and soil respiration were also enhanced during the daytime soil temperature change due to high above ground biomass and abundant surface vegetation.In addition,soil CO2 flux increased to 308.64 mg/(m2·h),which was 1.31 times higher than that in control (234.90 mg/(m2·h)),and the difference was significant (P<0.05;n=9).During the test period,illumination was poor and surface radiation exposure was limited in the daytime.The light intensity of maize field goose was 5 488.89 Lx,the control treatment was 8 666.67 Lx.Soil temperature was mainly due to the heat generated by bio-metabolic activities,so the soil temperature during the day was higher than that in the control treatment;During night time,the soil water content in the 5-15 cm soil layer was 16.14%,which was significantly higher than that in control 1.27% (P<0.05;n=9).Good thermal conductivity of
吉林省玉米、大豆田化学除草的现状与发展对策
康岭生,王广祥,张伟,宋淑云
吉林农业大学学报 , 2004,
Abstract: ?阐述了吉林省玉米、大豆田杂草的种类、发生规律及演替,概括了玉米、大豆田化学除草的特点以及除草剂的使用现状,总结了化学除草使用中存在的问题,提出了今后发展的建议:逐步建立杂草监测基点,开展预测预报研究工作;继续引进开发新的除草剂品种,筛选安全、高效新的除草剂;重视除草剂交替使用和合理混配,加大除草剂推广力度;加强高活性、长残效除草剂的科学使用和管理;推广抗除草剂转基因作物的应用;培养专业技术人才。
秸秆不同还田模式对玉米田温室气体排放和碳固定的影响
李新华,朱振林,董红云,杨丽萍,郭洪海
农业环境科学学报 , 2015, DOI: 10.11654/jaes.2015.11.027
Abstract: 为了探讨小麦秸秆不同还田模式对玉米田温室气体排放和碳固定的影响,通过田间试验,测定了秸秆不同还田方式下玉米生长季温室气体(CO2、N2O和CH4)的排放量和碳固定量,结果表明:秸秆不同还田模式对温室气体排放量影响不同,在玉米生长季,CO2和N2O累计排放量表现为秸秆过腹还田(CGS)>秸秆直接还田(CS)>秸秆不还田(CK)>秸秆-菌渣还田(CMS),CH4的累计吸收量表现为CGS>CK>CMS>CS,且不同处理间差异显著(PCMS>CS>CK,且不同处理间差异显著(PCS>CMS>CK,但不同处理间差异不显著(P>0.05).和CK相比,在CS、CGS和CMS模式下,玉米田对全球变暖的减缓效应均增加,但增加量不同,表现为CGS>CMS>CS>CK,既秸秆过腹还田模式下玉米田对全球变暖的减缓效应最大,其次是秸秆-菌渣还田模式,之后是秸秆直接还田模式.在秸秆过腹还田模式下,玉米田对全球变暖的减缓效应为22493.83kgCO2·hm-2,分别比CK、CS和CMS模式下玉米田对全球变暖的减缓效应增加24.2%、18.7%和1.6%.从减缓全球变暖的角度,推荐秸秆过腹还田模式,该模式也有利于形成粮食-秸秆-饲料-牲畜-肥料-粮食的良性循环,实现农田的固碳、减排.
松嫩平原玉米田土壤CO_2排放规律与碳平衡特征 CO_2 emissions law research and characteristics of carbon balance of corn field in Songnen Plain
龚振平,朱捷,宋秋来,马春梅,李中韬
- , 2015,
Abstract: 通过对松嫩平原玉米田土壤CO2排放的连续观测,研究连作玉米田土壤CO2排放规律及与土壤温度、土壤水分的关系,并计算玉米田土壤碳平衡特征。结果表明,玉米田土壤CO2排放通量呈现明显季节性,6~8月土壤CO2排放量较大,而在4和11月维持较低水平。秸秆还田处理(MTS)土壤CO2排放通量、最大通量和平均通量高于翻耕处理(CT)。土壤CO2排放通量与地温呈显著正相关,指数方程表征二者关系效果最佳,线性方程效果最低,除个别情况,深层土壤拟合效果高于浅层土壤;MTS处理的土壤CO2排放通量与土壤温度相关性高于CT处理。土壤CO2排放通量与12 cm深度土壤水分相关性不显著。通过对秸秆、根茬还田碳与土壤CO2排放碳的测算,MTS处理秸秆还田碳量较CO2排放碳量平均每年多2 744.6 kg C·hm-2,呈碳汇效应;CT处理秸秆还田碳量较CO2排放碳量平均每年少810.4 kg C·hm-2,呈碳源效应。
华北平原典型农田土壤氧化亚氮的排放特征
农业环境科学学报 , 2005,
Abstract: 采用静态箱法研究了华北平原典型农田土壤N2O通量的日变化、季节变化特征,并分析土壤温度、水分对土壤N2O通量的影响。结果表明,在作物生长季节内,华北平原玉米田、大豆田、棉花田土壤的N2O平均通量分别为244.3±27.9、177.8±27.1和88.2±8.1mg·m-·2h-1。玉米田、大豆田和棉花田土壤N2O排放均呈明显的季节变化,苗期玉米田和大豆田、抽雄吐丝期玉米田及始花期棉花田土壤N2O的释放峰均由施肥所致,始花期大豆田土壤N2O的释放峰主要与大豆自身生理代谢活动及降水有关。玉米田土壤N2O通量的日过程为午后-凌晨双峰型,棉花田土壤N2O通量的日过程变化多样:有白天-夜间双峰型、白天或夜间单峰型、平缓型4种。观测到的土壤N2O排放的日变化类型主要受土壤湿度影响,随着土壤湿度降低,土壤N2O排放的日最高值从夜间转至白天,其日较差变小。玉米田、大豆田、棉花田土壤N2O排放通量均随地温增加呈指数增长,并都达到0.01显著水平。观测期间玉米田、大豆田、棉花田土壤N2O排放通量与土壤水分相关性均不显著。
施肥及秸秆还田处理下玉米季温室气体的排放
裴淑玮,张圆圆,刘俊锋,牟玉静,伦小秀
环境化学 , 2015,
Abstract: 以华北地区冬小麦-夏玉米轮作农田为研究对象,在玉米整个生长季,运用静态箱法针对正常施肥及正常施肥结合秸秆还田处理进行了为期3年N2O排放通量的连续观测,并开展了1季CO2和CH4交换通量的研究.在玉米整个生长过程中施肥阶段N2O的排放量占到了总排放量的83%—96%,表明现有化肥的使用明显导致了农田N2O排放增加.与控制地相比,施肥和耕种可导致玉米田CO2排放明显增加,且正常施肥及秸秆还田样地CO2排放主要集中在苗期至吐丝期.控制地、正常施肥样地及施肥结合秸秆还田样地CH4的累积排放量均为负值,说明旱地土壤是CH4的一个汇.秸秆还田在一定程度上增加了玉米季N2O和CO2的排放量,但对CH4的吸收有所抑制.正常施肥样地和秸秆还田样地全球净增温潜势分别为-1392.8kgC·hm-2和-179.2kgC·hm-2,表明华北农田在现有耕作方式下是大气温室气体的一种重要汇.
玉米田养鹅对土壤理化性状、杂草多样性及玉米生长的影响
Effects of raising geese in cornfield on soil physical and chemical properties,weed diversity and maize growth

曹舰艇,关法春,仝淑萍,沙志鹏,边步云,程犇
- , 2018,
Abstract: 为探究"玉米田养鹅"对农田生态系统杂草多样性、土壤理化性质及玉米生长状况的影响,以林芝市八一镇章麦村试验田为研究对象,运用对比方法,研究玉米田养鹅 (Raising geese in cornfield,RGC)和对照(Control,CK)土壤理化性质、杂草多样性及玉米生长的异同,旨在通过田间状态的描述和中间状态的研究,为以后优化玉米田调控措施提供依据。结果表明:1)RGC处理有19种杂草,其中以菊科植物最多,对照组仅有9种。不同功能群杂草密度相差很大,双子叶一年生或越年生被子植物功能群杂草密度远远高于其他5种功能群;RGC处理提高了杂草群落Shannon-Wiener和Simpson多样性指数,但降低了Pielou均匀度指数和Margalef物种丰富度指数;2)RGC处理土壤含水率较对照高1.27%,与对照相比差异不显著(P>0.05);3)随着土层加深,RGC和对照土壤紧实度均呈逐渐增加趋势,且RGC对紧实度影响显著;4)对照土壤碱解氮含量为86.48 mg/kg,略高于RGC处理2.67 mg/kg(P>0.05),速效钾含量为161.07 mg/kg,略高于RGC处理28.66 mg/kg(P<0.05),而RGC的土壤中速效磷含量为120.98 mg/kg,是对照(106.25 mg/kg)的1.14倍(P>0.05)。结论:RGC处理增加了农田系统杂草数量、种类和生物量,提高了生物多样性,使土壤紧实度明显减小、土壤含水率增加及土壤养分含量出现差异,且玉米各项农艺性状低于对照。
In order to explore the effects of raising geese in cornfield on weed diversity,soil physical and chemical properties and maize growth status in farmland ecosystem.An experimental plot,which was located in Zhangmai Village,Bayi Town,Linzhi County,was taking as study object to investigate the similarities and differences between raising geese in cornfield (RGC) and control on the biodiversity of weeds in farmland ecosystem,physical and chemical properties of soil and growth of maize.The results showed that:1) RGC had 19 species of weeds,which were mainly composite,while CK had only 9 species.The total weed density of API was 15.42 times as much as that in CK,showing a significant difference (P>0.05).In RGC,the distribution of the dominant weed was considerably large.The number of dicotyledonous angiosperm and annual/biennial was much higher than other five functional groups.2) The soil moisture content of RGC was 1.27% higher than that of the control,which was not significantly different from that of the control (P>0.05);3) With the deepening of soil,the compactness of RGC and CK soil gradually increased,and RGC had a significant effect on soil compactness;4) The content of available nitrogen and K of CK were 86.48 and 161.07 mg/kg,2.67,28.66 mg/kg higher than RGC (P>0.05),but the content of available K in RGC was 120.98 mg/kg,1.14 times as much as CK which was 106.25 mg/kg (P<0.05),the content of available phosphorus in RGC was 120.98 mg/kg,which was 1.14 times of the control (P>0.05).In conclusion,the RGC treatment increased the number,species and biomass of weeds in farmland system,improved biodiversity,reduced soil compaction,increased soil water content and soil nutrient content,and however affected maize plant growth.
下辽河平原玉米田土壤呼吸初步研究
农业环境科学学报 , 2006,
Abstract: 以玉米田作为研究对象,分析了土壤呼吸速率的季节变化规律及环境因子的作用,旨在通过了解农田CO2吸收与排放的动态变化,为探索该地区碳收支机理提供试验依据。试验采用静态箱/气相色谱(GC)法测定了下辽河平原典型玉米田的土壤呼吸速率。结果表明,玉米田土壤呼吸速率具有明显的变化规律,玉米生长旺盛期土壤呼吸速率值保持在较高水平,3种处理的平均土壤呼吸速率分别为:施N肥处理(N150)为215.67mg.m-2.h-1;未施N肥处理(N0)为192.48mg.m-2.h-1;无作物对照(CK)为137.13mg.m-.2h-1。土壤温度Q10和土壤水分是影响土壤呼吸的重要因素。地下5cm的土壤温度与土壤呼吸有显著的相关性。在夏季(6至8月)的土壤水分与土壤呼吸间存在较为明显的互为消长关系。施肥可明显增强土壤呼吸作用,N150比N0处理土壤呼吸总量增加了12.1%,N150和N0处理的土壤呼吸总量分别是CK处理的1.57和1.40倍。
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