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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 293748 matches for " 李潮海 "
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玉米性别决定的激素调控
杨同文,
植物学报 , 2012, DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1259.2012.00065
Abstract: ?玉米(Zeamays)属典型的雌雄异花植物,单性花的形成经历了复杂的性别决定过程。通过雄穗小花和雌穗下位花的雌蕊原基以及雌穗小花雄蕊原基的选择性败育(或退化),玉米最终形成正常的雌雄同株单性花。相关突变体的研究揭示,玉米性别决定涉及选择性细胞死亡、细胞保护及信号转导等复杂的过程。其中,植物激素信号的调控在玉米性别决定过程中处于核心地位。最近的研究表明,赤霉素、细胞分裂素和茉莉酸类物质参与调控玉米性别决定过程。该文结合最新研究成果,综述了植物激素在玉米性别决定中的作用及其调控途径,同时提出了研究中存在的问题,并对该领域未来的研究方向进行了展望。
土壤容重对玉米苗期生长的影响
,周顺利
华北农学报 , 1994, DOI: 10.3321/j.issn:1000-7091.1994.02.010
Abstract: 在控制水分、肥料的条件下,用盆栽试验研究土壤容重对玉米苗期生长的影响。结果表明,土壤容重对玉米苗期生长影响显着。随着土壤容重的变化,玉米根系及地上部都随之发生一定的变化。在一定范围内,随着土壤容重的增加,玉米的根长逐渐变短,而其直径则逐渐变粗。同时根干重及株高等均与土壤容重呈显着或极显着的线性回归关系,表现为负相关。而就地上部干重及T/R值(冠/根比值)来讲,则呈现二次曲线关系,当容重为1.30g/cm3左右时达到最大值。另外土壤容重对玉米叶片生长也有一定的影响。
优质蛋白玉米选育的分子遗传途径
锦辉,
核农学报 , 2006,
Abstract: 本文综述了opaque突变基因及其修饰基因的最新研究进展。从分子生物学角度分析了优质蛋白玉米育种过程中突变基因及修饰基因改善蛋白质品质和控制籽粒性状的遗传机理,提出了利用突变基因及修饰基因减少玉米醇溶蛋白,增进玉米品质的思路。
不同基因型玉米氮素利用的机理研究
锦辉,
核农学报 , 2007,
Abstract: 利用15N标记研究了不同基因型玉米氮素利用效率的差别;分析了不同基因型玉米豫单2002(高蛋白)和豫单136(低蛋白)籽粒中蛋白质含量及单粒蛋白质含量在灌浆期的动态变化;测定了籽粒中硝酸还原酶和谷氨酰胺合成酶活性的变化动态,结果表明蛋白质含量高的玉米品种氮素利用率较高,豫单2002比豫单136高7.79%;二者的硝酸还原酶活性在灌浆期内变化趋势相近,授粉0~30d,也相差不大,授粉后30d至收获,豫单2002的硝酸还原酶活性始终高于豫单136,授粉后第45天时,豫单2002比豫单136高出32.77μgNO2-/(gFW.h);豫单2002与豫单136籽粒的谷氨酰胺合成酶活性在籽粒灌浆期的变化动态均呈“∽”型,且豫单2002一直高于豫单136;高的酶活性促进了蛋白质的形成。本研究为高蛋白玉米的蛋白质形成基础提供了理论依据。
不同耐旱性玉米杂交种及其亲本叶片活性氧代谢对水分胁迫的响应
,尹飞?,王群?
生态学报 , 2006,
Abstract: 干旱是制约玉米生产最主要的逆境因子。通过在活动式防雨棚下进行盆栽试验,以耐旱性不同的2个玉米杂交种及其亲本自交系为材料,研究了水分胁迫下玉米叶片活性氧代谢的变化及膜脂过氧化水平。结果表明,在水分胁迫下:(1)玉米叶片o-〖dd(x-*2〗〖dd)〗2产生速率和h2o2含量升高、活性氧清除酶类sod、cat、asp活性和清除剂asa含量在生育前期略微升高,在生育后期明显降低,致使膜脂过氧化产物mda含量在整个生育期,特别在生育后期明显升高;(2)耐旱性不同的玉米材料维持活性氧代谢平衡的能力存在差异,且该差异在生育后期更为明显。耐旱性较强的掖单2号及其亲本叶片o-〖dd(x-*2〗〖dd)〗2产生速率和h2o2含量增加幅度小,生育前期sod、cat和asp活性,以及asa含量增幅大,后期清除酶活性和清除剂含量较高,全生育期内mda含量增幅小,表现出较强的维持活性氧代谢平衡能力。而耐旱性较弱的掖单13及其亲本正相反;(3)杂交种维持活性氧代谢平衡的能力受亲本维持能力遗传决定。杂交种各指标的相对耐旱值与其两亲本的平均值呈正相关,其中cat和asp活性以及asa含量3个指标差异达显著水平。
种植密度对白花蛇舌草生长和产量的影响
贺敏,连珍,
中国中药杂志 , 2008,
Abstract: 白花蛇舌草Hedyotisdiffusa为茜草科Rubiaceae耳草属Hedyotis一年生草本,广泛分布于亚热带地区,我国云南、广西、广东、福建、浙江、江苏、安徽等地均有生长,主要功效为清热解毒和利尿[1-2],药理研究表明,该药具有抗菌、增强免疫功能、抗肿瘤、抗衰老等作用[3-4]。全草入药(其根系极小,主要入药部位为地上部分的茎、叶及果实)。目前市场对白花蛇舌草的需求剧增,栽培面积逐年增加,由于人工栽培时间短,栽培技术尚欠完善。本试验对不同种植密度白花蛇舌草的干物质积累、群体生长率变化和生物产量进行了研究,拟确定其有利于高产的较适宜种植密度,为规范白花蛇舌草的生产管理提供依据。
Effects of light stress at different stages on the growth and yield of different maize genotypes (Zea mays L.)
弱光胁迫对不同基因型玉米生长发育和产量的影响

LI Chao-Hai,

生态学报 , 2005,
Abstract: Light is one of the most important factors affecting corn (Zea mays L.) production. The light saturation point of corn is much higher than that of most other crops, allowing corn to take advantage of the higher light intensity. During the growing season, however, corn frequently encounters low light intensities that restrict growth capacity, therefore limiting the grain yield. The level of photosynthetic active radiation (PAR) can markedly change the growth environment, which directly impacts photosynthesis capacity, even the accumulation and reallocation of dry matter, thus affecting yield. Several studies on the effects of light stress on corn had been done, but none have studied differences among various Maize genotypes. The objective of this trial was to assess the growth and yield response to shading at different growth stages for different Maize genotypes. The two-year pot-culture experiments were conducted during 2001 and 2002. Cylindrical plastic pots, 27 cm in height and 30 cm in diameter, were used in this trial. Each pot was filled with 12.5 kg air dried soil. The planting dates were June 13 and June 4 in 2001 and 2002, respectively. The experiment involved two factors: cultivars and shading. The first factor included four cultivars: Yedan22, Yedan3638, Yuyu2, and Danyu13, and the second factor consisted of four levels of shading: control (no shading), seedling shading (shaded from germination to 6th full-expanded leaf), ear shading (shaded from 6th fully-expanded leaf to silking), and grain shading (shaded from silking to maturity). The shade environment was created by using black polypropylene fabric with 50% light penetration. The shading fabric was 6 metres long and 6 metres wide, and was hung horizontally 3 meters above the bottom of the pots. To insure shading treatment was effective in the early morning and late afternoon, the eastern and western sides of the corn canopy were also covered by the same fabric. The results indicated that corn growth rate expressed by leaf appearance was slower and the leaf blade was thinner under shade conditions. The shading treatment delayed the senescence of leaves directly, but shortened the leaf functional period as the shaded leaves ageing process was accelerated once they regained the normal light. Under shade conditions, the plants were taller, but shorter than that of the control once regaining normal light. Dry matter accumulation was reduced and growth stage was delayed for all the shading treatments, particularly at the silking stage. Compared with the control, the yield was also reduced by shading. The magnitude of the yield reduction was related to the shading stages, the yield was decreased significantly by the ear shading treatment compared to other treatments. There were differences among the genotypes in the responses to light stress: Yedan3638 and Danyu13 were more sensitive to light stress than Yedan22 and Yuyu2.
Hormone Regulation of Sex Determination in Maize
玉米性别决定的激素调控

Tongwen Yang,Chaohai Li,
杨同文
,

植物学报 , 2012,
Abstract: Maize is a typical monoecious plant, and the formation of a unisexual flower undergoes a complex process of sex determination. Monoecious and spatially separated unisexual flowers are produced by selective abortion of pistil primordia in both tassel floral and lower ear floral parts and arrest of all stamen primordia in tassel spikelets. Previous study of related mutants revealed that sex determination is a complex process involving selective cell death, cell protection and signal transduction. Phytohormones and their signal transduction play an important role. Recent studies indicated that gibberellins, cytokinin and jasmonic acid are involved in the regulation of sex determination in maize. In this paper, we summarize the latest advances in the roles and regulatory pathways of plant hormones in maize sex determination. We describe problems in research and future directions in the field.
冬小麦、夏玉米一体化垄作的养分利用研究
马 丽, , 赵振杰, 张学林
植物营养与肥料学报 , 2011, DOI: 10.11674/zwyf.2011.0219
Abstract: 为比较不同栽培方式下冬小麦、夏玉米的养分利用效率,于2005~2007年在河南省浚县农业科学研究所试验站,采用大田试验,研究了传统平作与垄作两种栽培方式下冬小麦、夏玉米的养分吸收及利用情况。结果表明,与传统平作相比,一体化垄作栽培,有利于作物的养分吸收,提高了产量和收获指数,改善了土壤肥力。一体化垄作全年作物氮、磷、钾吸收量分别增加14.18%、9.20%和5.90%,冬小麦、夏玉米收获指数分别提高2.13%和2.42%,产量分别提高4.23%和9.61%,全年产量平均提高7.33%。2年试验看出,一体化垄作土壤肥力状况优于传统平作。
下层土壤容重对玉米根际土壤微生物数量及微生物量碳、氮的影响
王群?,尹飞?,郝四平?,*?
生态学报 , 2009,
Abstract: 采用微区池栽模拟试验,研究下层(20~40cm、40~60cm)土壤容重改变后,玉米根际微生物数量、微生物量c(mbc)和微生物量n(mbn)的动态变化规律。结果表明,玉米根际微生物(细菌、放线菌、真菌)数量、mbc和mbn随土层加深和下层土壤容重增加而降低,且相同层次不同容重的处理间差异达显著水平;不同层次土壤根际微生物数量、mbc和mbn既受本土层容重大小影响,也随相邻土层容重增大其降幅增加,且20~40cm土层容重对土壤微生物数量、mbc和mbn的影响远大于40~60cm土层容重。玉米生育期间,三者受下层土壤容重变化和玉米生长发育的双重影响,且玉米的生长发育过程放大了容重对根际微生物数量、mbc和mbn的影响效果。
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