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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 318475 matches for " 机会成本<br>National Key Ecological Function Areas "
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国家重点生态功能区的生态补偿标准、支付额度与调整目标
Ecological Compensation Standard, Payment Amount and Adjustment Target in National Key Ecological Function Areas

李国平,李潇
- , 2017, DOI: 10.15896/j.xjtuskxb.201702001
Abstract: 中国对国家重点生态功能区实施生态补偿财政转移支付制度已近十年。通过对国家重点生态功能区生态保护成本与效益的定量分析,结合国家重点生态功能区生态补偿财政转移支付额度的考察,以生态补偿标准的理论分析为基础,揭示了国家重点生态功能区生态补偿标准的合理区间,并提出其选择依据,为国家重点生态功能区生态补偿的财政转移支付制度改革和完善中国生态补偿机制提供理论支持。
It is almost 10 years that the implementation of ecological compensation transfer payment system has been implemented in National Key Ecological Function Areas. This paper, through the quantitative analysis of ecological protection costs and benefits of National Key Ecological Function Areas, combined with the amount of ecological compensation financial transfer payment in National Key Ecological Function Areas, based on the analysis of ecological compensation theoretical standard, reveals the reasonable range of ecological compensation standard and its selected basis of National Key Ecological Function Areas, aiming at providing theoretical support for the reform of National Key Ecological Function Areas ecological compensation financial transfer payment system and the improvement of ecological compensation mechanism in China
Principle analysis and method improvement on cost calculation in watershed ecological compensation
流域生态补偿标准中成本核算的原理分析与方法改进

Duan Jing,
段靖
,严岩,王丹寅,董正举,代方舟

生态学报 , 2010,
Abstract: The equilibrium condition between supply and demand of ecosystem services in a watershed was discussed in the paper based on the marginal analysis. It was proved that the lower limit of ecological compensation standard is the sum of direct cost and opportunity cost. Theoretically if the compensation standard less than this limit, ecological compensation could not achieve the purpose to encourage the action of ecological conservation and environmental protection. Based on analysis above, current accounting scope and calculation method of direct cost and opportunity cost in watershed ecological compensation were summarized and the existing problems were analyzed. The common calculation framework and method of direct cost was put forward. Moreover, a classification-based method to account opportunity cost was set up to improve the accuracy, scientificity and acceptability in determination of watershed ecological compensation standard.
Application of opportunity\|cost method in determining ecological compensation standard: a case study in the central mountainous area of Hainan Island
机会成本法在确定生态补偿标准中的应用——以海南中部山区为例

LiXiaoGuang,Zheng Hua,
李晓光
,苗鸿,郑华,欧阳志云,肖燚

生态学报 , 2009,
Abstract: How to determine ecological compensation standard is one of the main difficulties during designing the ecological compensation scheme. Taking the central mountainous area of Hainan Island as a case study, we calculate the cash flows of rubber and betel based on remote sensing interpretation, survey and interview. And the opportunity cost of ecological forest protection was determined (2.37×108 Yuan RMB/year) in the central mountainous area, which was considered the ecological compensation standard. Moreover, the impacts of time factor and risk factor have on opportunity cost were discussed: time factor could be divided into discount rate and cash flow in different periods, risk could reduce the opportunity cost. The results suggest that to combine opportunity cost calculation with farmland ownership is a suitable method to determine the ecological compensation standard, and considering the impacts of time factor and risk factor will make the estimation of ecological compensation standard more reasonable.
时间偏好的区际差异:分布特征与影响因素
刘金山,贺琛
中央财经大学学报 , 2018,
Abstract: 摘要 时间偏好在诸多经济问题上起着基础性作用,由众多行为个体所组成的社会整体时间偏好对资源合理配置及可持续发展具有重要意义。现有研究主要集中在我国整体社会贴现率取值的确定上,对社会贴现率影响因素的实证探讨及社会贴现率的区际差异分析亟需完善。数据表现与影响因素入手的区际差异分析为我国分地区采用差别社会贴现率提供了理论依据及数值参考,并为针对性调控我国社会贴现率提供了新的思路。研究结果显示:我国东、中、西部区域社会贴现率数值各异,且资本社会机会成本(SOC)、加权社会贴现率(SRTPSOC)存在地域递减的分布特征;收入增长率、死亡率、消费边际效用弹性、消费增长率及市场利率均会对我国社会贴现率产生影响,且西部地区社会贴现率对居民消费特征及资本市场的变化反应更为敏感,东部地区社会贴现率长期均衡水平不受居民收入增长率及市场利率的影响。
基于机会成本的终端用户可靠性电价测算
Reliability pricing of the electricity end-users based on the opportunity cost

曾令鹤,吴文建,林莉
- , 2017, DOI: 10.11835/j.issn.1008-5831.2017.01.004
Abstract: 文章基于可靠性电价“高质高价”的市场化原则,根据供电可靠率和限电序位表,运用机会成本的原理,设计出终端用户的加权可靠率指标,作为用户可靠性电价的成本分摊依据,从而构建出终端用户的可靠性电价测算模型。文章以国内某地区电网公司的实际数据,选取高中低不同可靠性的样本用户,测算了各类用户适用的可靠性电价。研究结果表明,实施终端用户可靠性电价的改革有助于提高整个社会的用电经济效益;测算结果对于中国优化销售电价结构的市场化改革具有实践上的参考价值。
According to the reliability rate of power supply and the table of load limiting order, this article designs the weighted reliablilty rate as the cost-sharing index of an electricity end-user, builds a reliability pricing model of the electricity end-users based on the economic principle of opportunity cost and the market principle "high quality and high price". The study selects the different reliability samples from a domestic local grid company, collects the users' actual datas and calculates the electricity price of various reliability users. The research shows that the reliability pricing of the electricity end-users helps to improve the whole social economic efficiency. The calculating results can be refered to the market-oriented reform of existing terminal electricity price system in China.
MARGINAL OPPORTUNITY COST(MOC) PRICING-THE THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK OF NATURAL RESOURCES PRICING
边际机会成本定价——自然资源定价的理论框架

Zhang Zheng,
章铮

自然资源学报 , 1996,
Abstract: The price of natural resources should be equal to their marginal opportunity cost(MOC).Theoretically,MOC is the whole cost of employing an unit of certain natural resource.MOC is made up of three parts:marginal production cost(MPC), marginal user cost(MUC) and marginal external cost(MEC).When we use an unit of certain scarce natural resource by some way,the maximal abandoned net benefit which may be gained from using the same natural resource by other ways is MUC. When we use an unit of certain natural resource,the Coverspending uncompensated loss that other people suffer is MEC.As an environmental resource,the self-puriflcation capacity of environment also has MUC.
Discussion on the Compensation Standard of the Arable Land Protection Based on Food Security
基于粮食安全的耕地保护补偿标准探讨

YONG Xinqin,ZHANG Anlu,
雍新琴
,张安录

资源科学 , 2012,
Abstract: Based on the opportunity cost and the food security goal, this paper analyzed the basis for determining the compensation standard of arable land protection and brought forward the technical train of thought and method for measuring and calculating the compensation standard and amount, which were also emperically studied. The results show that: 1) The opportunity cost loss of the arable land protection is the lowest compensation value standard. The opportunity cost loss of the regional arable land protection is equal to the net income which comes from the transformation of arable land into the construction land. And the opportunity cost loss of the peasant households within a region is equal to the remaining sum got by subtracting the net income from the food production of arable land out of that from the transformation of arable land into construction land; 2) The technical train of thought for measuring and calculating the regional compensation standard and amount is that the value standard and amount are determined according to the loss of the opportunity cost and the profits and losses of the regional arable land. And the technical train of thought for measuring and calculating the compensation standard of the peasant households is that the specific annual compensation standard is determined by comprehensive consideration of the factors such as the desires of the peasant households and the Governmental economic capacity based on the annual opportunity cost loss of the arable land protection; 3) In 2008, the average value standard of the regional compensation was 13,100 yuan per hm2. There were 17 provinces suffering arable land deficit and the total compensation was 256.767 billion yuan. Among the 65 counties or cities in Jiangsu Province, there were 14 ones suffering arable land deficit and the compensation was 15.701 billion yuan in total. The average compensation standard of the peasant households in Xiaozhangjia Village of Jiangsu Province was 7,200 yuan per hm2 for the paddy land and 8,700 yuan per hm2 for the dry land. The main points of innovation are as follows: 1) The opportunity cost loss of the arable land protection among regions and that of the peasant households within a region are separately defined; 2) The technical train of thought and method for measuring and calculating the compensation standard and amount are new.
The Models of Land Opportunity Cost for CO2 Pricing in Carbon Trading: A Case Study in North China''''s Grassland
碳贸易中碳价格计算的土地机会成本模型评述及实例分析

CHANG Rui-ying,TANG Hai-ping,
常瑞英
,唐海萍

资源科学 , 2007,
Abstract: The development of the theory of carbon trading has been undergoing more than ten years,but the related research work of the C-trading in China has been limited.The price of carbon dioxide in C-trading was equal to the total amount of the CO_2 sequestration in a project divided by the costs of the project. It was rather a difficult process to estimate the costs of project.Moreover,the estimation of land opportunity cost as a part of the costs of project was particular hard to calculate.Presently,there are three popular models to calculate the land opportunity cost in C-trading,and they are bottom-up model,sector model and econometrical model.The three models are introduced and compared with each other in this article,and their suitability in China is assessed,especially in the northern grassland of China.In the end part,the method to calculate the carbon pricing of the grassland in Inner Mongolia of China was discussed as an example.As a comparison conclusion,the three models have their own excellences and shortcoming.The bottom-up model is much easier to understand and calculate,but it can not reflect the real wills of the landlords and the intricate relationships between the agriculture and forestry.The sector model can reflect the relationships between the agriculture and forestry well,but it is not yet considering the landlords' will.The econometrical model contains the information from the landowners,so it can predict the transformation track of the land.However,the model works on the private land,not the public land.Another drawback of sector and econometrical model is that it is too complicated to understand and compute.The judgment on the three models indicates that none of them is suitable to application in China,especially in the northern grassland of China because the environmental conditions in this zone are much different from those in the areas mentioned in the former studies.Finally,a new idea and a more suitable and feasible method has been brought forward to estimate the carbon price in this especial area.It is very important and meaningful to confirm the carbon price in the grassland of China.
蔬菜价格悖论的理论解析

淮建军,王征兵,雷红梅
- , 2016, DOI: 10.13300/j.cnki.hnwkxb.2016.03.004
Abstract: 为解释蔬菜产销差价巨大的现象,利用流通成本、供求均衡,分工与协作,参照价格和机会成本等理论对蔬菜价格悖论进行系统分析。供求理论分析表明,在蔬菜供应链中,批发商、收购商和零售商相对于菜农具有自然垄断地位;分工与协作理论分析表明,批发商、收购商和零售商较高的分工效率决定了他们的垄断定价权力;参照价格理论和机会成本理论分析表明,蔬菜产销的各个主体的参照价格和机会成本存在的巨大差距,才是造成蔬菜价格悖论的根本原因。因此,降低渠道壁垒,建设供应链和价值链,加强分工与专业化,完善沟通机制,减小城乡差距等是解决蔬菜价格悖论的主要对策。
工会维权与员工的消极性权利——基于中国企业—劳动力匹配调查数据的实证检验
The Functions of the Trade Unions and Employees’ Passive Rights: An Empirical Analysis Based on China Employer-Employee Survey

,,,
- , 2018,
Abstract: 摘要 维护员工劳动权是工会的法定职责。随着劳动力工资不断上涨,劳资双方地位发生变化,员工在工作中的自主选择意愿逐渐增强,现有劳动权利保障体系与社会发展之间的不适应性已日渐暴露。在现代企业治理中,工会对健康有序劳资关系的形成具有重要意义,党的十九大报告明确提出要“完善政府、工会、企业共同参与的协商协调机制,构建和谐劳动关系”。目前学界更多关注工会自身维权的有效性,但新时代中国的工会转型更应从其定位和职能这一根本性角度来探究。本文依据中国企业—劳动力匹配调查数据(CEES),对工会保障员工劳动权的现状进行多维度实证检验。数据结果表明,工会对员工就业权、劳动报酬权及职业培训权的保障有显著正向作用,但对休息权和社会保险权的实现无显著影响。基于此,以机会成本理论视角明确工会未促进员工部分劳动权实现的根源在于其维权职能界限不清,干预了员工有自主选择意愿的消极性权利,进而导致员工面临“被动闲暇”和“非最佳投资”的困境。建议工会维权应以员工积极性权利的实现为动力,以消极性权利的实现为界限,即工会维权重在“保障底线”,不可“过度保护”。
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