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Abstract: The Vice President of China Xi Jinping visited Mongolia and signed The Sino-Mongolian Economic and Trade Cooperation Medium-Term Development Compendium in June 2008, indicating that the economic and trade relationship between China and Mongolia entered a new phase, especially in the aspect of mineral resources cooperation development. Since Mongolia is the major object of Chinese friendly policy, and the cooperative development of mineral resources is an important area of economic and trade cooperation between China and Mongolia, the two sides claimed that they would develop the mineral resources for bilateral economic and trade cooperation in the future. Therefore, it is necessary to scan the general distribution and exploitation trend of the mineral resources of Mongolia. Then we try to find the favorable conditions of mineral resources development betweenChinaandMongolia. At the same time we should find the unfavorable factors of the Sino-Mongolian cooperation and development of mineral resources, and put forward the creative countermeasures about development of mineral resources. Both sides should coordinate the North-South Water Diversion Project and Sea water to West project to solve the water shortage problem of the mining areas. Both sides ought to operate the key projects by focusing on the large enterprises to solve the problem of investment risk. Both sides should work together to broaden the finance channels to solve infrastructure construction backwardness. Both sides should be committed to strengthening the friendly and cooperative relations to solve the various problems arising from mineral resource cooperation development. Only by this way can we promote the mineral resources development project between two countries effectively so as to inject vigor to bilateral economic and trade cooperation.