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Optical fiber communication is the mainstream of communication development at present. However, with the development of optical fiber communication system which trending towards ultra-long length, ultra-large capacity and ultra-high speed, fiber dispersion turned to be a great obstacle. How to control the dispersion created in the optical communication system effectively while force optical signal to reach the receiving end in high-capacity, high-rate and error-free long-distance transmission has increasingly become a research focus of optical fiber communication systems. It is a great significance to research about monitor and dynamic compensate dispersion in the optical communication systems, so that the ultra-large capacity, ultra-long length and ultra-high speed optical fiber communication systems would not be impossible, all-optical intelligent network with automatic switching functions would come true. Among the varieties of methods to measure fiber dispersion, the phase-modulation shift method is the unique one, which has the advantages of simple structure, high reliability. In this paper, we make a research and simulate to use the phase-modulation shift method, meanwhile we also discuss about the factors which affect the accuracy of the results in the different fiber lengths and modulation frequencies. By the means that selecting appropriate modulation frequency, we can use modulation phase shift method to measure the exact value of dispersion comes out from different lengths of fiber. Moreover, this paper also proves that the phase-modulation shift method is able to measure the optical fiber with arbitrary dispersion-wavelength curve, which is already verified by our simulation. Therefore, the phase-modulation shift method is well to be applied to take practice in the high-precision fiber dispersion measurement.