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微小RNA(microRNA, miRNA)是一类内源性小分子单链RNA，在细胞增殖、分化、凋亡尤其是肿瘤发生发展等生理病理过程中发挥重要作用。miR-21 是研究最早也是较特殊的miRNA 之一，其在几乎所有的实体肿瘤包括胰腺癌中高表达。miR-21 通过作用于靶基因调控胰腺癌发生发发展，在胰腺癌细胞增殖、分化、迁移、侵袭以及肿瘤耐药性等起发面关键作用，有望成为胰腺癌诊断、治疗以及判断预后的潜在的生物标志物，有着潜在的临床应用价值。
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of single-stranded, evolutionary conserved, noncoding RNA molecules,which play important roles in various physiological or pathological processes, such as cell proliferation, differentiation,apoptosis, and especially tumorigenesis. All of them, miR-21 is one of the first studied and most special miRNAs as it is over expressed in nearly all of soil tumors. miR-21 has been shown to regulate the progression of pancreatic caner by targeting tumor suppressor or oncogenes, playing a key role in cell proliferation, differentiation, migration, invasion and drug resistance of pancreatic cancer. Therefore, miR-21 will possibly be a potential biomarker for diagnosis, therapy and prognosis of pancreatic cancer, showing potentially clinical value.
微小RNA(microRNA, miRNA)是一类长度为18~25个核苷酸组成的内源性非编码小分子RNA，miRNA主要通过与靶基因序列特异性翻译抑制的相互作用在转录后水平对基因表达进行调节，从而参与多种生物学功能。与肿瘤细胞的增殖，凋亡等过程密切相关。在肿瘤的早期诊断和治疗中发挥了重要的作用。它们可以作为肿瘤诊断的潜在的生物标志物。本文就微小RNA(microRNA, miRNA)在消化道肿瘤中的生物学意义及进展做出综述。
miRNAs are a group of endogenous non-coding small RNA molecules of 18 - 25 nt. They regulate gene expression at the posttranscriptional level through interaction with inhibition of target gene translation, involving in a variety of important biological processes. They link closely to the proliferation and apoptosis of the tumor cell and play a very important role in the early diagnosis and therapeutic. They can be regarded as a promising biomarker of carcinoma. This review tries to do a short introduction of the research progresses and biological significances of miRNA in digestive neoplasms.