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在烟草行业中卷烟生产带有明显的计划色彩，而销售却表现出很强的市场特征。库存在计划供应与市场需求的匹配中起着重要作用。存销比是烟草行业库存控制的通用指标。本文探讨了VMI模式在实践应用的局限性。构建了烟草行业的两阶段供应链CPFR(联合计划、预测和补货Collaborative planning, forecasting and replenishment, CPFR)体系框架。研究了在CPFR体系下存销比库存控制参数的设定。In tobacco industry, the production of cigarette is controlled by national plan. But the sale of ciga- rette is market facing. Stock plays an important role in the matching of planned production and customer de- mand. Stock-to sales ratio is the common index that is used in inventory management in tobacco industry. The paper discussed the limitation of VMI in practice. A CPFR (Collaborative planning, forecasting and re- plenishment) framework of a two-stage supply chain for tobacco industry was proposed. The inventory man- agement parameter based on stock-to sales ratio was researched.
本研究目的为探讨主管“转换型领导”与“交易型领导”风格与员工工作后果(包括：工作满意度、组织公民行为、组织承诺、工作绩效)之间的关联，并探讨员工自我观的调节作用。有效样本为784名全职员工，其中台湾样本446名，大陆样本338名。资料分析采用阶层回归来验证假设，结果显示：1) 转换型领导是四个后果变项的预测因子，交易型领导则是工作满意度与组织承诺的预测因子。2) 自我观会调节转换型领导与工作后果的关联。当员工具有高度“社会取向”自我观，会“强化”转换型领导对工作绩效的正向效果，会“弱化”交易型领导对工作满意度的正向效果。而当员工具有高度“个人取向”自我观，则会“弱化”交易型领导对组织公民行为的正向效果。显示员工之自我观为领导效能的重要权变因子。
The aim of this research was to explore the relations among supervisors’ transformational leadership, transactional leadership, and subordinates’ work outcomes (including job satisfaction, organizational commitment, organizational citizenship behavior, and job performance). Using structured questionnaires, a diverse sample of 784 full-time employees drawn from a variety of organizations in Taiwanand mainlandChinawas surveyed. Analyses revealed that transformational leadership was positively related to all four outcome variables in our study; whereas transactional leadership was positively related to job satisfaction and organizational commitment. More importantly, we found that the social-oriented self view enhanced the positive effect of transformational leadership on job performance but mitigated the positive effect of transformational leadership on job satisfaction. On the other hand, the individual-oriented self view mitigated the positive effect of transactional leadership on organizational citizen behavior. It is thus recommended that employee’s self views may be important contingent factors of leadership effectiveness.