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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 45313 matches for " 山宝琴 "
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2种沙蒿根围AM真菌时空分异
,贺学礼
干旱区研究 , 2011,
Abstract: 为阐明荒漠生境中沙生植物根围AM真菌时空分布规律及其与土壤因子的关系,在陕西省榆林市北部沙地设立样地,于2007年4月、7月、10月在密集型克隆植物黑沙蒿(Artemisiaordosica)和白沙蒿(Artemisiasphaerocephala)根围分0~10cm,10~20cm,20~30cm,30~40cm和40~50cm5个土层采集土壤样品,并以非克隆植物猪毛蒿(Artemisiascoparia)为对照,系统研究了2种沙蒿根围AM真菌时空分布及其与土壤因子的相关性。结果表明2种沙蒿根系都能形成菌丝、泡囊、丛枝等典型共生结构,黑沙蒿菌丝定殖率达90.72%,白沙蒿达89.63%。黑沙蒿和白沙蒿根围孢子密度最大在0~10cm土层,并随土层加深显著递减。AM真菌孢子密度在7月最大,而丛枝定殖率相反。黑沙蒿根围孢子密度与土壤速效磷、有机质、温度和碱性磷酸酶活性均呈显著正相关,丛枝定殖率与土壤速效磷、有机质和碱性磷酸酶活性均呈显著负相关。3种宿主植物相比较,非克隆植物猪毛蒿根围孢子密度最大,但菌丝定殖率、泡囊定殖率和丛枝定殖率显著较低。
毛乌素沙地12种蒿属植物叶的解剖特征
,贺不礼?
西北农林科技大学学报(自然科学版) , 2007,
Abstract: 为了进一步研究蒿属植物系统分类及植物适应极旱生环境的机理,运用石蜡切片法,在光学显微镜下观察了毛乌素沙地12种蒿属植物叶的解剖特征。结果表明,12种蒿属植物的叶片分等面叶和异面叶两种类型,叶表皮细胞形状为长条形和不规则型,垂周壁式样为平直、弓形、浅波状和深波状;气孔器以不规则型为主,仅有1种为环列型,保卫细胞椭圆形或圆形,隆起,气孔排列方式为平列型和散乱型,气孔指数差异较大。12种蒿属植物叶片具有明显的强旱生植物结构特征,如叶面积显著缩小,表皮毛发达,角质膜厚,栅栏组织极为发达并具环栅结构,维管束多且具维管束鞘,气孔器密集,均生于表皮细胞水平下面,孔下室较大等。12种蒿属植物的叶解剖特征表现出一定的种间差异,如叶表皮细胞形状、细胞垂周壁式样、气孔指数等,这些特征为蒿属植物种间分类提供了依据。
毛乌素沙地密集型克隆植物根围AM真菌多样性及空间分布
,贺学礼,段小圆
草业学报 , 2009,
Abstract: 在毛乌素沙地选设3个样地,系统研究2种密集型克隆植物白沙蒿和黑沙蒿根围丛枝菌根真菌的多样性、分布及共生体结构特征。结果显示,AM真菌的分布及多样性与宿主植物和土壤条件密切相关,黑沙蒿根围AM真菌的孢子密度高于白沙蒿,水肥条件较好的榆林样地黑沙蒿根围孢子密度最高。本试验共分离出AM真菌6属20种,其中地球囊霉(Glomusgeosporum)是黑沙蒿根围的优势菌种,光壁无梗囊霉(Acaulosporalaevis)为白沙蒿根围的优势菌种。2种沙蒿根围孢子密度在3个样地均与土壤深度显著负相关,最大值出现在0~20cm表层土。菌丝侵染率与泡囊侵染率呈显著正相关,丛枝侵染率与菌丝圈百分率显著正相关。丛枝侵染率与宿主植物须根在土壤中的分布变化密切相关。分析表明,2种沙蒿均为典型的丛枝菌根植物,其优异固沙性能的主要原因之一是特化根系与丛枝菌根真菌共生互补的结果。同时,荒漠土壤-植物-菌根最佳组合的优势菌种的筛选,可为毛乌素沙地植被恢复提供材料和依据。
连续化生产生物柴油的反应器与工艺的研究进展
,范慧,何爱,云志
化工进展 , 2010,
Abstract: 生物柴油因其具有优良的环境友好性和可再生性日益受到关注。传统的间歇反应器制备生物柴油存在生产效率低、产品质量不稳定等弊端,连续化生产节能减耗、降低成本、产生规模效益成为生物柴油工业化生产的趋势。本文简介了国内外生物柴油的发展,综述了连续搅拌釜式反应器、活塞流反应器、固定床反应器等主要连续化生产生物柴油反应器与工艺,并进行了对比。
荒漠油蒿根围am真菌与球囊霉素的时空分布
陈颖?,贺学礼?,,赵丽莉?
生态学报 , 2009,
Abstract: 2007年4月、7月和10月分别于陕西省榆林市北部沙地的油蒿(artemisia.ordosica)根围分0~10cm,10~20cm,20~30cm,30~40cm和40~50cm5个土层采集土壤样品,系统研究了油蒿根围丛枝菌根(arbuscularmycorrhiza,简称am)真菌和球囊霉素的时空分布及与土壤因子的相关性。结果表明,油蒿根围am真菌总定殖率为89.54%、泡囊定殖率为26.24%,丛枝定殖率为21.08%,孢子密度为2.91~6.17个/g土,说明油蒿能与am真菌形成良好共生关系。从土壤样品中共分离出4属21种am真菌,其中球囊霉属(glomus)为优势属,地球囊霉(g.geosporum)为优势种。油蒿根围am真菌和球囊霉素具有明显的时空异质性,并与土壤因子密切相关。菌丝定殖率随季节变换逐渐增加,泡囊定殖率和丛枝定殖率在夏季最低,春秋相对较高,与孢子密度季相变化相反。油蒿根围总球囊霉素在0~20cm土层含量最高,随土层深度增加而递减。易提取球囊霉素含量随土层深度增加波动较大。球囊霉素春季含量最高,夏秋含量降低。总球囊霉素和易提取球囊霉素与土壤养分、土壤酶活性、am真菌孢子密度均有极显著相关性,二者能综合反应土壤am真菌群落、有机c动态和养分循环进程,应作为土壤质量及功能评价的新指标进一步深入研究。
漠境沙打旺根围am真菌与土壤酶活性的关系
白春明?,贺学礼?,
西北农林科技大学学报(自然科学版) , 2009,
Abstract: [目的]研究漠境am真菌对宿主沙打旺(astragalusadsurgens)的作用机理及对根部土壤酶活性的影响.[方法]分别采集陕西靖边、宁夏盐池、内蒙古包头和集宁等4个样地沙打旺根围0~10,10~20,20~30,30~40和40~50cm等5个土层的土壤样品,研究am真菌在土壤中的空间分布及其与土壤脲酶、蛋白酶、酸性磷酸酶活性和碱解n、速效p含量的关系.[结果]am真菌定殖率及孢子密度与样地生态条件密切相关,其中集宁样地孢子密度最高,靖边样地泡囊定殖率最高,包头样地丛枝、菌丝和总定殖率均高于其他样地;孢子密度与am真菌不同结构定殖率间无显著相关性.土壤酸性磷酸酶活性对孢子密度有极显著正的效应;脲酶活性对孢子密度和丛枝定殖率有极显著的正效应;蛋白酶活性对丛枝定殖率、菌丝定殖率、总定殖率均有极显著正效应.土壤蛋白酶与泡囊定殖率呈显著负相关.碱解氮、速效磷对与以上3种土壤酶活性均呈极显著正相关.[结论]沙漠生境下am真菌与土壤酶活性显著相关.am真菌孢子密度和菌根不同结构的定殖程度可作为荒漠土壤生态系统环境状况检测的有效指标.
毛乌素沙地油蒿(artemisiaordosica)根围am真菌的时空分布研究
,贺学礼?,赵丽莉?
西北农林科技大学学报(自然科学版) , 2009,
Abstract: [目的]阐明荒漠地区am真菌生态作用及其与沙生植物的互作关系,为am真菌资源的合理利用及荒漠环境的恢复提供理论依据.[方法]在毛乌素沙地东北缘的中国科学院植物研究所鄂尔多斯沙地草地生态站设立样地,于2007年4,8和10月,采集油蒿(artemisiaordosica)根围0~10,10~20,20~30,30~40和40~50cm土层土样,分离其丛枝菌根(arbuscularmycorrhiza,am)真菌并测定相关土壤因子,系统研究油蒿根围am真菌的时空分布.[结果]am真菌在油蒿根系的总定殖率(86.9%)和丛枝定殖率(24.8%)均较高,说明二者间有良好的共生性;油蒿根围am真菌孢子密度和定殖率随季节和土壤深度的变化而具有明显的时空性差异,并与土壤微环境显著相关.油蒿根围0~40cm土层的菌丝定殖率和泡囊定殖率均较高且无显著变化,丛枝定殖率以30~40cm土层较大.am真菌孢子密度、土壤养分及土壤酶活性最大值均出现在0~20cm土层,并随土壤深度增加而递减.am真菌孢子密度、土壤速效磷含量、速效氮含量及土壤酶活性均随时间积累而增加,于10月份达到最大值.am真菌孢子密度与土壤速效磷含量及磷酸酶活性呈显著正相关,丛枝定殖率与有机质含量、速效氮含量及土壤脲酶、酸性磷酸酶、碱性磷酸酶的活性均呈显著负相关,仅与ph显著正相关.[结论]am真菌对提高寄主植物抵御外界干扰的能力维护荒漠土壤生态系统结构的完整性和功能稳定性具有重要意义.
陕北南泥湾湿地农田养分及AM真菌多样性
Farmland nutrient and biodiversity of AM fungi in Nanniwan wetland in Northern Shaanxi

,乔依依,刘国豪,向梅
- , 2017, DOI: 10.7606/j.issn.1000-7601.2017.04.26
Abstract: 研究选取南泥湾湿地6种不同作物类别的农田为样地,并设荒野次生林地为对照,分0~10、10~20 cm和20~30 cm土层深度采集土壤样品,测定土壤养分含量,分析丛枝菌根(Arbuscular mycorrhiza, AM)真菌多样性及其孢子密度。结果表明:0~30 cm土层范围,土壤有机质含量为7.54~17.23 g·kg-1,蔬菜地有机质含量显著高于其它地类;土壤速效氮含量为12.01~27.10 mg·kg-1;土壤速效磷的含量为3.08~9.67 mg·kg-1,云杉和林地土壤速效磷的含量显著低于其它地类;土壤速效钾含量为98.61~152.51 mg·kg-1;南泥湾农田养分含量偏低,尤其缺乏土壤速效氮和土壤速效磷。试验共分离出3属10种AM真菌,其中球囊霉属(Glomus)6种,占60%;梗囊霉属(Acaulospora)3种,占30%;盾巨孢囊霉属(Scutellospora)1种,占10%。林地AM真菌物种丰度最大,其次是云杉,水稻地AM真菌物种丰度最小。地球囊霉(G. Geosporum)是优势种类,美丽盾巨孢囊霉(Scu. Calospora)属于偶见种,摩西球囊霉(G.mosseae)只出现在耕作土壤。不同地类孢子密度差异显著,以0~30 cm土层平均值比较:林地土孢子密度(2.24个·g-1)>云杉幼苗地土孢子密度(2.18个·g-1)>谷子地土孢子密度(1.46个·g-1)>玉米地土孢子密度(1.31个·g-1)>蔬菜土孢子密度(0.76个·g-1)>水稻土孢子密度(0.73个·g-1)>黄豆土孢子密度(0.67个·g-1)。
Wetland is invaluable natural resource, especially in Northern Shaanxi known as serious water loss and soil erosion areas of the loess plateau. Soil samples from seven agrotypes were selected and collected in Nanniwan wetland in Northern Shaanxi, China, aiming to research farmland nutrient concentration and biodiversity of Arbuscular mycorrhiza fungi, and thereby presenting suggestions for local agriculture development. The soil samples were collected from a depth of 30 cm into 3 sections, i.e. 0~10, 10~20 cm and 20~30 cm in the different farmlands in 2015. The spore density and biodiversity of AM fungi were measured. The result showed that at the 0~30 cm soil layer, the concentration of organic matter ranged from 7.54 g·kg-1 to 17.23 g·kg-1, organic matter in vegetable site was significantly higher than that in other layers. The concentration of available nitrogen ranged from 12.01 mg·kg-1 to 27.10 mg·kg-1. The concentration of available phosphorus ranged from 3.08 mg·kg-1 to 9.67 mg·kg-1, and the lowest value was detected in soil sample of Picea asperata. The concentration of available potassium ranged from 98.61 mg·kg-1 to 152.51 mg·kg-1. 10 AM fungi taxa in three g enera were isolated and identified, of which 60% belonged to the genus Glomus, 30% to Acaulospora, and 10% to Scutellospora. The most abundance of AM fungi was found in the forest, second most in the field of Picea asperata, and the lowest in paddy field. The spore density showed significant differences among sites, with an order of forest soil (2.24·g-1), Picea asperata soil (2.18·g-1), millet soil (1.46·g-1), maize soil (1.31·g-1), vegetable soil (0.76·g-1), paddy soil (0.73·g-1), and soybean soil (0.68·g-1)。
The spatio\|temporal distribution of arbuscular mycorrhiza fungi and glomalin in the rhizosphere of Artemisia ordosica in desert
荒漠油蒿根围AM真菌与球囊霉素的时空分布

CHENYING,HE Xue-li,and,
陈颖
,贺学礼,,赵丽莉

生态学报 , 2009,
Abstract: In this paper, the spatio\|temporal distribution of arbuscular mycorrhiza (AM) fungi and glomalin in rhizosphere of Artemisia ordosica and its relationship with soil factors were investigated in sand soil north to Yulin city, Shanxi, China. In April, July and October, 2007, soil samples around rhisophere of A.ordosica were collected. Each time, the soil was divided into five layers on the basis of depth from top to bottom: 0-10 cm, 10-20 cm, 20-30 cm, 30-40 cm, 40-50 cm, respectively. The results showed that the total colonization rate (89.54%), vesicular colonization rate (26.24%) and arbuscule colonization rate (21.08%) of AM fungi were very high around rhisophere of A.ordosica, and spore number was 2.91-6.17 per gram soil, indicating that AM fungi established well symbiosis with rhisophere of A. ordosica. Twenty\|one species of AM fungi in four genera were detected in soil samples, the predominant genera and predominant species was Glomus and G. geosporum, respectively. Distribution of AM fungi and glomalin was remarkably heterogeneous and closely related with soil factors. Hypha colonization increased gradually with season. Vesicular colonization rate and arbuscule colonization rate were at their lowest level in summer and higher in spring and autumn, seasonal variation of spore density was in a reverse pattern. Total extractable glomalin (TEG) was negatively correlated with soil depth, the highest value was in surface (0-20 cm) layer. Easy\|extracted glomalin (EEG) content showed a fluctuation with soil depth. The TEG content was high in spring and decreased in summer and autumn. TEG and EEG were remarkably correlated with soil nutrition, soil enzyme activity and spore density of AM fungi, in future research, they can be used as parameters to monitor the development of AM fungi community, organic carbon dynamic and nutrition cycle in sand soil.
废旧Zn-C电池-活性污泥炭的制备及对SO2的吸附
牛志睿,王建,,刘羽,朱延强
环境科学学报 , 2015,
Abstract: 以污水厂二次污泥为主要原料,掺杂不同量的废旧Zn-C电池电极材料,采用ZnCl2活化法制备出废旧Zn-C电池-活性污泥炭,表征分析污泥炭样品的碘吸附值、BET、FT-IR、SEM-EDS和XRD,并进行了低浓度SO2气体动态吸附试验.试验结果表明,污泥与电池粉末质量比为3:1时,污泥炭的碘吸附值和比表面积分别达到750.6mg·g-1和708.5m2·g-1,优于纯污泥炭;回归分析表明,污泥炭吸附低浓度SO2的速率可用班厄姆公式描述,吸附平衡表达式可用Freundlih方程、Langmuir等温方程式表达,而Freundlih方程拟和效果更好.
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