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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 79915 matches for " 吴理财 "
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近一百年来现代化进程中的中国乡村—兼论乡村振兴战略中的“乡村”
Rural China in the Process of Modernization in the Past One Hundred Years—The "Rural Society" in the Strategy of Rural Revitalization

理财
- , 2018,
Abstract: 建设什么样的乡村、怎么建设乡村,是近代以来中华民族面对的一个历史性课题。 在近百年中国现代化进程中,乡村不断衰败凋敝,这跟近百年来我国所选取的经济发展道路不关系,更与人们对于“乡村冶和“乡村发展冶的认识紧密相关。 在相当长的一个历史时期内,人们简单地将“乡村冶与“农业冶、“乡村发展冶与“农业发展冶相提并论。 如果不能将乡村视为一个社会的概念,并着力乡村社会建设,即便在经济发展上用尽全力,也将事倍功半。
What kind of countryside and how to build a village are a historical topic faced by the Chinese nation since modern times. In the course of China’s modernization in the last hundred years, the country has been declining, which is closely related to the road of economic development selected in China in the last hundred years, and is closely related to people’s understanding of “rural” and “rural development”. In a fairly long historical period, people simply equate “village” with “agriculture”, and “rural development” with “agricultural development”. If we cannot regard the village as a social concept and focus on rural social construction, it will get half the results with twice the effort even if we do our best in economic development.
中国农村社会治理40年:从“乡政村治”到“村社协同”——湖北的表述
Social Governance in Rural China (1978-2018)——Hubei’s Story

理财
- , 2018,
Abstract: 摘要 改革开放40年来,我国农村先后进行了农村土地经营和农村税费体制两大改革。与之相伴随的是,农村社会治理大致经过了两波重大变迁。如果说前一波变迁主要发生在“国家”与乡村社会之间,其主要成果是“政社分开”,形成“乡政村治”的农村治理体制;那么后一波变迁主要发生在乡村社会之内,触及乡村社会自身结构及其“灵魂”,其主要表征是“空心化”“个体化”。当前的因应之策便是在村民自治的基础上引入德治和法治,企望通过自治、德治、法治相结合,构建党委领导、政府负责、社会协同、公众参与、法治保障的现代农村社会治理体制。
Abstract:In the past 40 years since the reform and opening up, China’s rural areas have carried out two major reforms in rural land management and rural tax and fee system, along with two major changes in rural social governance. If the first wave of change mainly occurs between the “country” and the rural society, the main result of which is “the separation of politics and society” and the formation of the rural governance system of “township government and village self-governance”; then the latter change mainly occurs within the rural society and touches the structure of the rural society itself and its “soul”, which is mainly characterized by “hollowing-out” and “individualization”. The current policy is to introduce the rule of virtue and the rule of law on the basis of villagers’ autonomy, and hopes to build a modern rural social governance system with the leadership of the Party committee, the responsibility of the government, the social coordination, the public participation and the guarantee of the rule of law, through the combination of autonomy,the rule of virtue and the rule of law.
“倒逼”还是“反倒逼”——农村税费改革前后中央与地方之间的互动
李芝兰,理财
社会学研究 , 2005,
Abstract: 为了解决农民负担问题所引致的治理性危机,中央政府试图通过农村税费改革来倒逼基层政府对自身进行改革。由于税费改革是自上而下推动的,农村基层政府为了维护自身的利益,作为行政层级最末端的行为体,惟有被动地以“弱者的手段”回应上级压力,其客观结果却是农村公共产品阙如、基层政府运作困难,农村出现新一轮治理危机,由此形成向上的反倒逼现象,以致中央和省级政府只有采取新的措施,投放更多资源来解决农村问题。本文认为,朝着这个新趋向发展,将有助于进一步改进农村社会的治理。
精准扶贫进程中地方政府的动员式治理及其改进――鄂西H县政府扶贫行为分析
刘磊,理财
南京农业大学学报(社会科学版) , 2019,
Abstract: 在当前精准扶贫进程中,动员式治理成为地方政府扶贫工作的政策工具和治理策略。地方政府在扶贫动员中,常以行政动员来表达政治意志,用利益互惠策略来动员社会参与,以基层动员来实现秩序维系和扶贫目标。这种运作过程内涵了地方政府的国家意志表达和行政意志体现的政治逻辑,也体现了地方政府在基层实践中的治理规则实现和治理方式转变的治理逻辑。在面对上级政府的政治意志时以及与各利益主体的博弈中,地方政府在扶贫中的过度化动员会带来地方治理困境,因此,地方政府为推进精准扶贫,需要综合运用回应性与情感式治理等来消解过度动员治理的限度。
The governance mobilization has become a policy tool and a governance strategy of local government poverty alleviation in the current process of accurate poverty alleviation. Local government often makes use of administrative mobilization to express its political will, and to mobilize the social participation with the strategy of "reciprocity of interest", and makes use of grassroots mobilization to achieve the order maintenance and poverty alleviation goals in the process of poverty alleviation mobilization. This process of operation contains the political logic of the national will expression and administration and reflects the actualization of local government administration, and also reflects the governance logic of the governance rules implementation and the governance oriented change in the grass root practice. When local government faces the political wills of the superior government and the game with various interest subjects, the excessive poverty alleviation will create dilemma to local governance. In order to promote accurate poverty alleviation, local government need to comprehensively use the responsive and emotional governance to break through the limitation of mobilization governance
政府嵌入、村落秩序与村民集体行动:村落治理结构转换的路径及逻辑――基于赣南G村道路修建事件的分析
刘建,理财
南京农业大学学报(社会科学版) , 2017,
Abstract: 政府嵌入、村落秩序及村民集体行动作为我国村落治理的内在变量,三者的关系决定了村落治理结构的变迁。通过对G村道路修建的"事件-过程"分析发现,后税费时代村落治理结构经历了从内生性治理到动员性治理再到脱嵌化治理的结构性变迁。在内生性治理时期,村落治理需要外部权威的裁决才能保障村落内部秩序的平衡,村落总体上具有较强的自主性;而在村落利益分化的背景下,由于基层政权的治理能力日益衰减,村落治理需要依靠软磨硬泡为代表的软强制的动员才能实现;而到了脱嵌化治理时期,村落社会需要依托经济精英领导的理事会来维持村落共同体的运转。G村村落治理结构的转换体现了"规划性变迁"的农村治理逻辑,村落治理日益呈现结构离散化的特性。在当前村落社会"大转型"的背景下,需要通过政府扶持村落社会来抵御市场的冲击,重构"互动共治"的村落治理结构。
Government’s embedding, village’s orders and villagers’ collective action are the internal variables of village governance in China, and the relationship between them determines the change of the village governance structure.Through the ‘incident-process analysis’ of the road building of village G, it was found that the village governance structure has experienced the changes from endogenous governance to mobilized governance to suspended governance structure.During the period of endogenous governance, the external authority’s decision is needed for village governance to guarantee the balance of internal fac-tions and village order, and the village has strong autonomy on the whole; During the period of the mo-bilized governance, because the power capacity of grassroots regime decreases increasingly, grassroots social mobilization needs to rely on impending nuptials as representative form of soft force; And in the period of suspended governance, village society needs to rely on the village council led by the economic elite leadership council to resist the decline of village community.The transformation of the village gov-ernance structure in Village G reflects the rural governance logic of ‘planned change’, and the current village governance structure has undergone a discretization process.Under the background of ‘great transformation’ in the current village society, the government should support the village society to resist the market-shock, and reconstitute the ‘interactive rule’ of village governance structure
农村公地产权制度的结构性脱耦与重构——基于赣南G村的案例分析
The Structural Decoupling and Reconstruction of Rural Public Lang Property Right System——A Case Study of G Village in South Jiangxi

,,理财
- , 2018,
Abstract: 农村土地产权制度的建构,是结构化场域中的行动者通过策略化行动达到动态性均衡的过程。通过对G村公地纠纷的案例分析发现,在城镇化的背景下,农村公地产权制度经历了从“合约型产权”向“利己型产权”的结构性转换。在“合约型产权”的实践阶段,村落公地纠纷依托村落传统规范及村落成员权的界定得到化解,村落公地总体上处于“祖业权”范畴内。而在“利己型产权”的实践阶段,村民通过在不同的场域对不同产权规则有选择的挪用,村落公地产权的界定需依托“强力占有”的原则。由于农民土地产权认知在“道德理性”与“经济理性”的场域中徘徊,村落公地产权的界定陷入合法性紊乱的悖论,导致了农村公地产权制度的结构性脱耦。在当前农村土地产权的改革实践中,需要合理界定不同土地产权的属性,进而实现国家与社会关系的互动,重建农村公地产权制度的共识。
反贫困中的政府、企业与贫困户的 利益耦合机制
Analysis of Benefit-coupling Mechanism of Government, Enterprise and Poor Household in Anti-poverty

理财,瞿奴春
- , 2018,
Abstract: 引导和鼓励企业参与扶贫是社会主义市场经济条件下扶贫工作发展的客观要求,也是实现贫困人口脱贫致富的有效途径。企业参与扶贫的实践案例很多,但是关于政府、企业及贫困户反贫困协同行动如何持久却是一个探讨不充分的问题。通过对鹤峰县“扶贫项目民营业主负责制”模式的考察,力求剖析政府、企业及贫困户在反贫困中达成一致行动的缘由,在此基础上探究此模式包含的利益耦合机制,试图回答协同反贫困行动如何持续这一问题。分析认为“鹤峰模式”使得地方政府绩效增加、扶贫企业获利和贫困户实现减贫。总结了“鹤峰模式”的几个特征:其推行过程本质上是一个扶贫成本分担机制建构的过程,这一过程在政府的主导下企业与农民的关系得以重新建构,合理的利益分配是其能长期持续运行的核心动力。鹤峰县的这一反贫困模式至少有以下3点启示:一是要从根本上解决大面积的贫困问题,以产业发展带动贫困户脱贫是一种可行的选择;二是产业扶贫能否持久的关键在于是否建立起有效的动力机制;三是“鹤峰模式”具备较强的推广性和可复制性。
基因治疗的现况和前景

遗传 , 1985,
Abstract: 早在人类开始种植谷物和驯养家畜起,就已经在自觉或不自觉地通过选择优良种子或种畜进行基因操作了。一百年以前英国博物学家高尔顿倡导的优生学则是一种将类似方法(控制生育)用于改善人类的理想。这种理想曾在本世纪的前四十年中风行一时,成为一种运动,引起了遗传学界的意见分歧。希特勒法西斯主义在三十年代的出现和以优生、种族卫生为“理
近50a来科尔沁地区沙漠化土地的动态监测结果与分析

中国沙漠 , 2003,
Abstract: 在明确了沙漠化土地的程度分级及其指标、监测方法的基础上,对科尔沁地区近50a来的沙漠化土地进行了遥感动态监测和分析。结果表明:科尔沁地区20世纪50年代未至70年代中期,是沙漠化土地扩展速度最快的一个时期,总面积增加了9084km2。从70年代中期到80年代后期,沙漠化土地继续呈快速增长之势,增加了9624km2;进入90年代,沙漠化过程呈现出逆转的趋势,沙漠化土地总面积由1987年的61008km2,减少到2000年的50142km2,减少了10866km2。就近50a来沙漠化土地变化的整体而言,经历了发展-再发展-逆转的过程。到2000年,科尔沁地区的沙漠化态势依然是严峻的。但从整个发展过程来看,沙漠化已呈现逆转的趋势。整个区域的生态环境在改善,环境容量在提高,继续发展下去,有望进入良性循环以保障生态环境与社会经济的可持续发展。
近50年来毛乌素沙地的沙漠化过程研究

中国沙漠 , 2001,
Abstract: 根据野外考察、应用遥感和地理信息系统技术对毛乌素沙地进行动态研究表明,50年代沙漠化土地面积约为12900km2,到了70年代中期达41110km2,80年代后期,减少为32590km2,至1993年又下降到了30650km2。50~70年代是沙漠化土地迅速发展的时期,而进入80年代以后,总体上是处于逆转过程中,已有近9460km2的沙漠化土地得到了治理,这主要得益于"三北"防护林工程的实施和当地政府与干部群众积极开展沙漠化防治的努力。也进一步证明了:沙漠化主要是人类造成的,也只有人类能够控制它。
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