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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 2197 matches for " 初级洞巢鸟 "
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潜在洞巢资源差异对次级洞巢鸟及繁殖鸟类群落的影响
周大庆,周春发,邓文洪*
生物多样性 , 2009,
Abstract: ?为了解次生林中潜在洞巢资源(包括各种啄木鸟的啄洞和人工巢箱)的多寡对次级洞巢鸟集团及繁殖鸟类群落结构的影响,2007年11月至2008年7月,我们在吉林省吉林市大岗林场选择洞巢密度不同的样地,对其次级洞巢鸟及鸟类群落结构进行了比较研究。根据洞巢资源密度我们将9块样地分为3组,即巢箱区(啄洞密度最低,悬挂人工巢箱使其潜在洞巢资源总密度大幅提高)、低密度区(啄洞密度较低,无巢箱)和高密度区(啄洞密度较高,无巢箱),调查了3组样地内鸟类的组成和密度、潜在洞巢资源的利用情况等。3组样地中均调查到4种初级洞巢鸟,其种类组成略有不同;4种次级洞巢鸟在3组样地广泛分布,分别为白眉姬鹟(ficedulazanthopygia)、大山雀(parusmajor)、沼泽山雀(p.palustris)和普通鳾(sittaeuropaea)。巢箱区和高密度区的次级洞巢鸟总密度显著高于低密度区。巢箱区同高密度区一样,大山雀和白眉姬鹟的密度显著高于低密度区,这是由于大山雀和白眉姬鹟是人工巢箱的主要利用鸟种,而沼泽山雀和普通鳾的密度在三组样地间差异不显著。初级洞巢鸟总密度与啄洞密度、次级洞巢鸟总密度与潜在洞巢资源总密度都呈显著正相关关系。潜在洞巢资源丰富的样地中鸟类群落多样性指数显著高于潜在洞巢资源贫乏样地中的鸟类群落多样性指数,人为增加洞巢资源可以改变鸟类群落组成并显著提高群落的多样性指数。三组样地中鸟类群落的均匀性、丰富度指数和种间相遇率没有显著差异,群落相似性指数也相近。高密度区和低密度区鸟类群落集团结构相似。次级洞巢鸟密度的增加短时期内未对群落内其他主要鸟种的密度产生显著影响。研究结果显示,初级洞巢鸟的密度决定了啄洞的丰富程度,而洞巢资源的差异会对次级洞巢鸟集团的分布模式产生影响,进而影响整个繁殖鸟类群落的结构。
Influence of potential cavity resources on secondary cavity-nesters and breeding bird community composition
潜在洞巢资源差异对次级洞巢鸟及繁殖鸟类群落的影响

Daqing Zhou,Chunfa Zhou,Wenhong Deng,
周大庆
,周春发,邓文洪

生物多样性 , 2009,
Abstract: To explore how density of potential cavity resources (including cavities and artificial nest boxes) affects the composition and distribution of secondary cavity-nesting guilds, as well as the community structure of breeding birds, we studied plots with different densities of nest cavities in Dagang Forestry Farm, Jilin Province, China from November 2007 to July 2008. Based on the density of cavity resources, the nine sample sites were divided into three treatments, i.e., NBP (nest-box plots with less cavities and high-density nest boxes), LDP (low-density cavities plots without nest boxes) and HDP (high-density cavities plots without nest boxes). We then surveyed avian communities and noted the use of cavities and artificial nest boxes. All the treatments contained four primary cavity excavators, and three species were the same. Four secondary cavity nesters were widespread in the three treatments, including the great tit {Parus major), marsh tit (P. palustris), yellow-rumped flycatcher (Ficedula zanthopygia) and eurasian nuthatch (Sitta europaea). Total densities of secondary cavity nesters in NBP and HDP were higher than that of LDP. Densities of great tits and yellow-rumped flycatchers were higher in NBP and HDP than in LDP, because they were major users of nest boxes. There were no significant differences in the densities of marsh tits and eurasian nuthatches among treatments. A significant positive correlation was detected between the density of primary cavity excavators and cavity density, and also between the density of secondary cavity nesters and potential cavity resources. Bird species diversity indices were lower in LDP than in NBP and HDP. Nest-box addition could potentially regulate the composition of avian communities by increasing bird species diversity indices. We observed no differences in evenness, species richness indices or probability of interspecific encounter (PIE) among treatments, and Serensen similarity indices differed little among treatments. There were no obvious differences in structure of breeding bird guilds between HDP and LDP. Nine species were found in all the three treatments, and their densities were not affected by the temporary increase in secondary cavity nesters. We hypothesize that density of primary cavity excavators determines the density of cavities in forests, which may change distributional patterns of secondary cavity-nester guilds, and therefore affect the structure of breeding avian communities.
Effect of artificial nestboxes on the diversity of secondary cavity-nesting birds and the stability of breeding bird community
人工巢箱对次级洞巢鸟类多样性及繁殖鸟类群落稳定性的作用

Zhen Li,Liyuan Yang,Wen Liu,Wenhong Deng,
李臻
,杨丽媛,刘文,邓文洪

生物多样性 , 2008,
Abstract: 人工巢箱在鸟类研究与保护中的使用越来越广泛, 但是人工巢箱对鸟类群落的影响并不清楚, 人工巢箱在鸟类群落保护过程中所扮演的角色仍然值得商榷。我们于2007年3–8月, 在北京门头沟区小龙门国家森林公园选择两块海拔及植被情况相似的样地, 一块悬挂50个人工巢箱, 另一块作为对照。我们调查了巢箱利用情况、巢箱内鸟类的繁殖情况及两样地的植被群落和鸟类群落。50个巢箱中有20个分别被褐头山雀(Parus songarus)、白眉姬鹟(Ficedula zanthopygia)、普通鳾(Sitta europaea)及大山雀(Parus major)占用。通过比较分析得知, 人工巢箱使实验样地白眉姬鹟的种群密度显著增加, 使实验样地次级洞巢鸟类群落的多样性指数(H’)和群落种间相遇率(PIE)显著高于对照样地, 而优势度指数(λ)显著低于对照样地。同时, 繁殖鸟类群落的相应指数也呈现出相同变化。这种变化更多地应该归因于人工巢箱的调节作用。通过这次研究, 我们认为人工巢箱影响了一部分次级洞巢鸟的分布模式, 并通过影响鸟类多度影响了次级洞巢鸟的多样性, 增加了一部分利用巢箱鸟类的种群密度, 进而使得实验样地繁殖鸟类多样性增加, 个体数量差异降低, 而群落均匀性增加。巢箱的悬挂对次生林鸟类群落保护产生了积极的影响。
人工巢箱对次级洞巢鸟类多样性及繁殖鸟类群落稳定性的作用
李臻,杨丽媛,刘文,邓文洪*
生物多样性 , 2008,
Abstract: ?人工巢箱在鸟类研究与保护中的使用越来越广泛,但是人工巢箱对鸟类群落的影响并不清楚,人工巢箱在鸟类群落保护过程中所扮演的角色仍然值得商榷。我们于2007年3–8月,在北京门头沟区小龙门国家森林公园选择两块海拔及植被情况相似的样地,一块悬挂50个人工巢箱,另一块作为对照。我们调查了巢箱利用情况、巢箱内鸟类的繁殖情况及两样地的植被群落和鸟类群落。50个巢箱中有20个分别被褐头山雀(parussongarus)、白眉姬鹟(ficedulazanthopygia)、普通鳾(sittaeuropaea)及大山雀(parusmajor)占用。通过比较分析得知,人工巢箱使实验样地白眉姬鹟的种群密度显著增加,使实验样地次级洞巢鸟类群落的多样性指数(h’)和群落种间相遇率(pie)显著高于对照样地,而优势度指数(λ)显著低于对照样地。同时,繁殖鸟类群落的相应指数也呈现出相同变化。这种变化更多地应该归因于人工巢箱的调节作用。通过这次研究,我们认为人工巢箱影响了一部分次级洞巢鸟的分布模式,并通过影响鸟类多度影响了次级洞巢鸟的多样性,增加了一部分利用巢箱鸟类的种群密度,进而使得实验样地繁殖鸟类多样性增加,个体数量差异降低,而群落均匀性增加。巢箱的悬挂对次生林鸟类群落保护产生了积极的影响。
悬挂巢箱对次级洞巢鸟类选择天然洞的影响
赵虹,张克勤,王海涛,邓秋香,姜云垒,JustinLIU,高玮
动物学杂志 , 2011,
Abstract: 于2005~2007年3~7月采用在试验样地中添加巢位(悬挂巢箱)与对照样地比较的方法,探讨悬挂巢箱是否影响天然洞的入住率,并为次级洞巢鸟类提供巢位资源,进而增加繁殖种群的数量。结果发现,无论是试验样地还是对照样地,总的入住数量年间差异不显著,种类间差异显著;天然洞之间(无论是否悬挂巢箱)的入住率差异不显著;人工巢箱与试验样地的天然洞之间的入住率差异极显著;人工巢箱与对照样地的天然洞入住率差异极显著。结果表明,人工巢箱的添加为次级洞巢鸟提供了巢位资源,大大地提高了入住率;人工巢箱的悬挂并未影响天然洞的入住率,试验样地与对照样地的天然洞的入住率没有显著区别,表明适合鸟类入住的天然洞巢位资源在次生阔叶林中,处于稳定且饱和状态。所以悬挂巢箱不影响天然洞的入住率,而且为次级洞巢鸟类补充了巢位资源,因此增加了繁殖种群的数量。
次级洞巢鸟对次生林天然树洞的利用
动物学研究 , 2002,
Abstract: 1996年3—7月对吉林省左家自然保护区次生阔叶混交林中的5种次级洞巢鸟的巢位选择进行了研究,所涉及的5种次级洞巢鸟为大山雀(Parusmajor)、沼泽山雀(Paruspalustris)、普通shi(Sittaeuropacea)、白眉姬weng(Ficedulazanthopygia)、灰椋鸟(Sturnuscineraceus)。研究表明:5种次级洞巢鸟在位巢选择中,对洞口横径、洞口纵径、洞内径、洞深和洞口方向的选择具有共性。利用的洞口,方向在180°-225°和315°-360°分布最少;而未利用的洞口方向在这2个区间的分布恰好相反。利用和未利用的巢洞特因子差异显著。人为堵塞后又打开的巢洞会迅速被再利用,结果说明次生林中天然树洞资源成为次级洞巢鸟巢位选择的限因子。
人工巢箱繁殖鸟类主要巢捕食者及其影响因素
张雷?,李东来?,马锐强?,奚长海?,万冬梅?
生态学报 , 2014,
Abstract: 巢捕食是影响鸟类繁殖成功率的一个重要因素,也是鸟类繁殖生态研究中的一项重要内容。确定鸟类的主要巢捕食者及影响巢捕食的因素对于了解鸟类繁殖成功率、种群增长率及种群数量等具有重要意义。2009-2012年,对辽宁仙人洞国家级自然保护区人工巢箱中繁殖的杂色山雀(parusvarius)、沼泽山雀(p.palustris)、大山雀(p.major)和白眉姬鹟(ficedulazanthopygia)四种鸟类的巢捕食率及影响巢捕食的因素进行了研究。研究共记录到238个繁殖巢(杂色山雀74巢、沼泽山雀21巢、大山雀118巢、白眉姬鹟25巢),其中35巢被捕食,捕食率为14.7%,雏鸟期被捕食占91.4%。巢捕食率在4种鸟类之间无差异(χ2=0.429,df=3,p=0.934)。以锦蛇(elaphespp.)为代表的蛇类是该地区小型森林洞巣鸟类繁殖期主要捕食者,占总捕食率的94.3%。对影响巢捕食的22个相关因子进行二元逻辑斯蒂回归分析发现,坡度、地面裸露率、草本盖度对巢捕食具有显著性影响;出雏时间、坡位、距碎石块距离对巢捕食的影响接近显著水平;而巢高、树粗、巢箱年龄、窝卵数、距路距离等对巢捕食无显著影响。因此,处于坡度较陡,坡位较高,草本覆盖率较高,地面裸露率较低,距碎石块距离较近,且出雏时间较晚的巢更容易被捕食。
利用天然树洞繁殖的五种鸟的巢位特征及繁殖成功率(英文)
王海涛?,高玮?,万冬梅?,刘多?,邓文洪?
生态学报 , 2003,
Abstract: 对吉林省左家自然保护区次生阔叶林中的大山雀(parusmajor)、沼泽山雀(paruspalustris)、普通跓(sittaeuropacea)、白眉姬?(ficedulazanthopygia)和灰椋鸟(sturnuscineraceus)5种利用天然树洞繁殖的次级洞巢鸟进行了巢位选择和繁殖成功率研究。本研究中共发现141巢。五种鸟对树洞类型的选择存在种间差异,普通跓不利用裂洞,沼泽山雀不利用啄洞,其它3种鸟对3种洞均有利用,但有一定的倾向性。对5种鸟9个巢位变量的比较中,只有洞口方向差异不显著(p>0.05),其它8个变量均差异显著(p<0.05),该结果说明5种次级洞巢鸟对巢位的选择具有其各自的需求。洞口横径、洞口纵径、洞处树直径、洞内径、巢距地高是巢位选择重要变量,它们决定不同种类对树洞的利用。巢损失多数出现在产卵之前和孵化阶段,44个繁殖失败的巢中有35个在这两个阶段损失。大山雀的巢成功率最低,灰椋鸟的巢成功率最高。5种鸟的孵化率都超过90%。人为破坏和动物捕食是繁殖失败的主要原因,占总数的61.4%。洞巢鸟巢位选择中的重要变量影响繁殖成功。普通币鸟繁殖是否成功受洞口横径和巢高影响,沼泽山雀受洞口纵径、树胸径和洞内径影响,大山雀受洞口横径、巢高和洞内径影响,灰椋鸟受洞内径和洞深影响,白眉姬鹟受洞口纵径、巢高和洞口夹角影响。失败巢的洞口横径多大于成功巢的洞口横径,失败巢的洞深、洞内径小于成功巢的洞深、洞内径,成功巢的巢高高于失败巢的巢高。靠近地面的巢较容易损失,38个繁殖失败巢中有21个巢高低于2.5m,只有2个高于4.5m。
Utilization of Natural Cavities by Secondary Cavity-nesting Birds in Secondary Forest
次级洞巢鸟对次生林天然树洞的利用

WANG Hai tao,GAO Wei,
王海涛
,高玮

动物学研究 , 2002,
Abstract: 1996年 3~ 7月对吉林省左家自然保护区次生阔叶混交林中的 5种次级洞巢鸟的巢位选择进行了研究 ,所涉及的 5种次级洞巢鸟为大山雀 (Parusmajor)、沼泽山雀 (Paruspalustris)、普通 (Sittaeuropacea)、白眉姬 (Ficedulazanthopygia)、灰椋鸟 (Sturnuscineraceus)。研究表明 :5种次级洞巢鸟在位巢选择中 ,对洞口横径、洞口纵径、洞内径、洞深和洞口方向的选择具有共性。利用的洞口 ,方向在 180°~ 2 2 5°和 315°~ 36 0°分布最少 ;而未利用的洞口 ,方向在这 2个区间的分布恰好相反。利用和未利用的巢洞特征因子差异显著。人为堵塞后又打开的巢洞会迅速被再利用 ,结果说明次生林中天然树洞资源成为次级洞巢鸟巢位选择的限制因子。
Nest-site characteristics and reproductive success of five species of birds breeding in natural cavities
利用天然树洞繁殖的五种鸟的巢位特征及繁殖成功率(英文)

WANG Hai-Tao,
王海涛

生态学报 , 2003,
Abstract: This study documents the nest-site characteristics and reproductive success of Ashy Starling (Sturnus cineraceus), Tricolor Flycatcher (Ficedula zanthopygia), Great Tit (Parus major), Marsh Tit (Parus palustris) and Nutchatch (Sitta europaea) breeding in natural cavities in the secondary forest of the natural protective area of Zuojia, Jilin Province in China. We found 141 active nests of five species of secondary cavity-nesting birds (SCNBs) at the study site during the breeding season in 1996.There exist significant differences between the five species of SCNBs in selecting cavity types. Nine nest-site variables were tested to see if they varied significantly among the 5 species. The results showed that only the compass orientations of nest entrance are not significant (p>0.05). But all the remaining eight variables are significant (p<0.05). The results indicate that the 5 species of SCNBs select nest-sites with their own nesting requirements. The horizontal diameter and vertical diameter of nest entrance, diameter of tree at cavity height, inner breadth of the cavity and the nest height above ground are important variables in nest-site selection and are predictive of species occupancy. Most of the nests that failed occur before the laying and hatching stage, as 35 out of 44 failed nests loss during these two stages. The nest success of Great Tit is the lowest and Ashy Starling is the highest. Hatching success among the five species of SCNBs' are at high level, all exceeding 90%. Depredation (included by man and animals) is the main cause for nest failure, accounting for 61.4% of total failure nests. SCNBs' reproductive success is influenced by important variables in nest-site selection. Reproductive success of Nutchatch is influenced by HDE and NH, Marsh Tit by VDE, DBH and BC, Great Tit by HDE, NH and BC, Ashy Staring by BC and DC, and Tricolor Flycatcher by VDE, NH and CA. The horizontal and vertical diameter of nest entrance of failed nests are bigger than those of successful nests, and the depth of the cavity and breadth of the cavity of failure nests are smaller than those of successful nests. Distances from ground level of successful nests are higher than those of failure nests. The nests close to the ground are more easier to lose, 21 out of 37 failure nests were under 2.5 m above ground level, and only 2 nests above 4.5 m from ground were lost.
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