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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 165317 matches for " óscar F. Gon alves "
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As raz?es que a raz?o desconhece: Penso, logo engano-me?
Gonalves,Miguel M.; Gonalves,óscar F.;
Análise Psicológica , 1997,
Abstract: in this article we review the studies concerned with reason analysis, developed in the last two decades by wilson et al (cf., wilson & schooler, 1991). this research systematically demonstrates that behavioral reason analysis produces dysfunctional effects by reducing the congruency between attitudes (verbal report measure) and behaviors. the disfunctionality of reason analysis also produces less satisfaction after choosing products for consumption. we analyse the interpretations of this dysfunctionality. foremost, the possible interpretations of these results could be a product of social desirability and the function that explanatory reasons may have in daily life. finally, we propose a re-interpretation of the results of these studies based on the distinction between paradigmatic thinking and narrative thinking (bruner, 1986).
Task-Specific Effects of tDCS-Induced Cortical Excitability Changes on Cognitive and Motor Sequence Set Shifting Performance
Jorge Leite, Sandra Carvalho, Felipe Fregni, óscar F. Gonalves
PLOS ONE , 2011, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0024140
Abstract: In this study, we tested the effects of transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS) on two set shifting tasks. Set shifting ability is defined as the capacity to switch between mental sets or actions and requires the activation of a distributed neural network. Thirty healthy subjects (fifteen per site) received anodal, cathodal and sham stimulation of the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) or the primary motor cortex (M1). We measured set shifting in both cognitive and motor tasks. The results show that both anodal and cathodal single session tDCS can modulate cognitive and motor tasks. However, an interaction was found between task and type of stimulation as anodal tDCS of DLPFC and M1 was found to increase performance in the cognitive task, while cathodal tDCS of DLPFC and M1 had the opposite effect on the motor task. Additionally, tDCS effects seem to be most evident on the speed of changing sets, rather than on reducing the number of errors or increasing the efficacy of irrelevant set filtering.
Analyzing structure, process and content in narratives of patients diagnosed with agoraphobia
óscar F. Gonalves,Margarida R. Henriques,Alexandra Alves,Luisa Soares
International Journal of Clinical and Health Psychology , 2002,
Abstract: Esta investigación constituye el primer intento por validar tres sistemas de clasificación de las narrativas a nivel de estructura, proceso y contenido, en el contexto de los trastornos emocionales. Concretamente los objetivos son los siguientes: (1) calcular la fiabilidad de tres manuales destinados a evaluar respectivamente la estructura, el proceso y el contenido de la narrativa; (2) establecer la validez de estos manuales en el análisis y discriminación de las narrativas de Zénith (por ejemplo, acertado) y de Nadir (por ejemplo, no acertado). El estudio incluye 40 pacientes con diagnóstico principal de agorafobia. A cada paciente se le aplicó una entrevista de elicitacion de dos tipos diferentes de narrativas personales significativas: (1) Nadir (por ejemplo, narrativas de vivencias asociadas a fracaso; (2) Zénith (por ejemplo, narrativas de éxito). Todas las narrativas fueron transcritas para posterior análisis a través de tres manuales de estructura, proceso y contenido, respectivamente. Los resultados muestran (1) un nivel elevado de acuerdo interjueces para cada dimensión de los tres manuales de evaluación y para el total; (2) una adecuada consistencia interna para cada manual, tanto en términos de coeficientes de correlación intercategorías, como de los valores de alfa de Cronbach; (3) los manuales permiten discriminar las narrativas de los participantes a nivel de estructura, proceso y contenido: (4) las narrativas del Zénith y del Nadir no difieren en cuanto a estructura, proceso y contenido, a excepción de la dimensión de la objetivización en el manual de evaluación del proceso/complejidad narrativa:los pacientes con agorafobia tienden a objetivar significativamente más las narrativas del Nadir que las narrativas del Zénith
From Semantics to Feelings: How Do Individuals with Schizophrenia Rate the Emotional Valence of Words?
Ana P. Pinheiro,Robert W. McCarley,Elizabeth Thompson,óscar F. Gon alves,Margaret Niznikiewicz
Schizophrenia Research and Treatment , 2012, DOI: 10.1155/2012/431823
Abstract: Schizophrenia is characterized by both emotional and language abnormalities. However, in spite of reports of preserved evaluation of valence of affective stimuli, such as pictures, it is less clear how individuals with schizophrenia assess verbal material with emotional valence, for example, the overall unpleasantness/displeasure relative to pleasantness/attraction of a word. This study aimed to investigate how schizophrenic individuals rate the emotional valence of adjectives, when compared with a group of healthy controls. One hundred and eighty-four adjectives differing in valence were presented. These adjectives were previously categorized as “neutral,” “positive” (pleasant), or “negative” (unpleasant) by five judges not participating in the current experiment. Adjectives from the three categories were matched on word length, frequency, and familiarity. Sixteen individuals with schizophrenia diagnosis and seventeen healthy controls were asked to rate the valence of each word, by using a computerized version of the Self-Assessment Manikin (Bradley and Lang, 1994). Results demonstrated similar ratings of emotional valence of words, suggesting a similar representation of affective knowledge in schizophrenia, at least in terms of the valence dimension.
Psychophysiological Correlates of Sexually and Non-Sexually Motivated Attention to Film Clips in a Workload Task
Sandra Carvalho, Jorge Leite, Santiago Galdo-álvarez, óscar F. Gonalves
PLOS ONE , 2011, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0029530
Abstract: Some authors have speculated that the cognitive component (P3) of the Event-Related Potential (ERP) can function as a psychophysiological measure of sexual interest. The aim of this study was to determine if the P3 ERP component in a workload task can be used as a specific and objective measure of sexual motivation by comparing the neurophysiologic response to stimuli of motivational relevance with different levels of valence and arousal. A total of 30 healthy volunteers watched different films clips with erotic, horror, social-positive and social-negative content, while answering an auditory oddball paradigm. Erotic film clips resulted in larger interference when compared to both the social-positive and auditory alone conditions. Horror film clips resulted in the highest levels of interference with smaller P3 amplitudes than erotic and also than social-positive, social-negative and auditory alone condition. No gender differences were found. Both horror and erotic film clips significantly decreased heart rate (HR) when compared to both social-positive and social-negative films. The erotic film clips significantly increased the skin conductance level (SCL) compared to the social-negative films. The horror film clips significantly increased the SCL compared to both social-positive and social-negative films. Both the highly arousing erotic and non-erotic (horror) movies produced the largest decrease in the P3 amplitude, a decrease in the HR and an increase in the SCL. These data support the notion that this workload task is very sensitive to the attentional resources allocated to the film clip, although they do not act as a specific index of sexual interest. Therefore, the use of this methodology seems to be of questionable utility as a specific measure of sexual interest or as an objective measure of the severity of Hypoactive Sexual Desire Disorder.
Anorexia Nervosa: Divergent Validity of a Prototype Narrative
Barbara César Machado,óscar F. Gonalves,Paulo P. P. Machado,Margarida R. Henriques
Terapia Psicológica , 2006,
Abstract: El objetivo de éste artículo es tanto poner a prueba la validez divergente (grado de discrimnación) de un prototipo de narrativa anoréxica (por ejemplo, conjunto de temáticas ligadas a la memoria que resultan centrales a la autobiografía de los individuos), como explorar las diferentes características de los participantes que podrían estar asociadas al grado de discriminación prototípica. Participaron en el estudio setenta pacientes diagnosticadas con anorexia nerviosa. Se les consultó que indicaran su grado de identificaciópn con cuatro diferentes prototipos de narrativa (prototipos depresivo, agorafóbico, anoréxico y de adicción a drogas y alcohol). Los resultados no confirman la validez divergente de la narrativa prototípica anoréxica. Los participantes tendieron a identificarse principalmente con la narrativa de tipo depresiva. No se hallaron diferencias significativas entre los niveles de identificación del prototipo anoréxico y depresivo, ni entre el prototipo agorafóbico y alcohólico. La única diferencia significativa se encontró entre la narrativa de tipo anoréxica y la drogodependiente. Sin embargo, se encontró asociación entre la severidad y duración de las conductas clínicas con el grado de identificación a la narrativa prototípica. los resultados se discuten en términos de un transdiagnóstico versus un enfoque de los prototipos de la psicopatología de los desórdenes alimentarios
Anorexia nervosa: a valida o divergente de uma narrativa protótipo
Margarida Rangel Henriques,Bárbara Cesar Machado,óscar F. Gonalves
International Journal of Clinical and Health Psychology , 2002,
Abstract: Este estudio es la continuación de otro en el que se elaboró una narrativa prototipo de la anorexia y se analizó su validez convergente (grado de verosimilitud). Se plantean tres objetivos: analizar la validez divergente (grado de discriminación) de la narrativa prototipo de la anorexia, explorar aspectos de la historia de los sujetos que puedan estar asociados a una diferencia de intensidad en la identificación con la narrativa de la anorexia y, por último, realizar un estudio exploratorio del poder predictivo de algunas de las variables descriptivas de la muestra en relación a la identificación con la narrativa prototipo de la anorexia. La muestra está formada por 38 sujetos con diagnóstico de anorexia nerviosa según los criterios del DSM-IV. Los resultados no confirman la validación divergente de la narrativa prototipo de la anorexia, poniendo en duda la hipótesis de su veracidad. No obstante, en los tres subgrupos de la muestra relacionados a la duración del trastorno superior a 2,5 a os, la puntuación total del EDI y la subescala de Miedo a la Madurez encima del punto de corte, los sujetos se identifican más con la narrativa prototipo de la anorexia que con la de la toxicodependencia y la de la agorafobia. La duración de la perturbación de más de 2,5 a os se revela como variable predictiva de la identificación con la narrativa prototipo de la anorexia.
Anorexia nervosa: Divergent validity of a prototype narrative among anorexia relatives
Bárbara C. Machado,óscar F. Gonalves,Paulo P. P. Machado,Margarida R. Henriques
International Journal of Clinical and Health Psychology , 2006,
Abstract: El objetivo de este estudio ex post facto fue analizar la validez divergente (grado de discriminación) de la narrativa prototipo de la anorexia nerviosa de acuerdo a los familiares significativos de los pacientes anoréxicos y explorar distintas características de los participantes que pueden estar asociadas con el grado de discriminación de la narrativa prototipo. Participaron 64 personas significativas de los individuos con anorexia nerviosa, a los que se les pidió que indicasen el grado de identificación, de acuerdo con su familiar, con cinco narrativas prototipo distintas (depresión, agorafobia, anorexia, alcoholismo y tóxico-dependencia). Los resultados no confirmaron la validez divergente de la narrativa prototipo de la anorexia. Los participantes mostraron tendencia a identificar en primer lugar a sus familiares con el prototipo de la agorafobia. Además, no se encontraron diferencias significativas entre la identificación con el prototipo de la anorexia y el de la depresión, de la agorafobia y del alcoholismo. La única diferencia significativa encontrada fue en la comparación entre el prototipo de la anorexia y el de la tóxico-dependencia. No obstante, las madres de las anoréxicas y la duración del trastorno se asocian al grado de identificación con la narrativa prototipo de la anorexia. Se discuten los resultados en términos de una aproximación sistémica versus prototipo de las perturbaciones del comportamiento alimentario.
From Semantics to Feelings: How Do Individuals with Schizophrenia Rate the Emotional Valence of Words?
Ana P. Pinheiro,Robert W. McCarley,Elizabeth Thompson,óscar F. Gonalves,Margaret Niznikiewicz
Schizophrenia Research and Treatment , 2012, DOI: 10.1155/2012/431823
Abstract: Schizophrenia is characterized by both emotional and language abnormalities. However, in spite of reports of preserved evaluation of valence of affective stimuli, such as pictures, it is less clear how individuals with schizophrenia assess verbal material with emotional valence, for example, the overall unpleasantness/displeasure relative to pleasantness/attraction of a word. This study aimed to investigate how schizophrenic individuals rate the emotional valence of adjectives, when compared with a group of healthy controls. One hundred and eighty-four adjectives differing in valence were presented. These adjectives were previously categorized as “neutral,” “positive” (pleasant), or “negative” (unpleasant) by five judges not participating in the current experiment. Adjectives from the three categories were matched on word length, frequency, and familiarity. Sixteen individuals with schizophrenia diagnosis and seventeen healthy controls were asked to rate the valence of each word, by using a computerized version of the Self-Assessment Manikin (Bradley and Lang, 1994). Results demonstrated similar ratings of emotional valence of words, suggesting a similar representation of affective knowledge in schizophrenia, at least in terms of the valence dimension. 1. Introduction Emotional abnormalities are a hallmark of schizophrenia [1–4] and are often evident in prodromal stages of this disorder [1, 5]. Recent years have seen a rapid increase in interest in emotion processing in schizophrenia. Stimuli with emotional salience have particular relevance for the individual and, thus, abnormalities in their processing have important consequences for social functioning and functional outcomes for individuals with schizophrenia [6]. The existing studies have explored different aspects of emotion processing in this disorder (see [7] for a review) including the study of (a) emotional perception (e.g., [8]); (b) emotional experience (e.g., assessment of self-reported affect through the presentation of emotionally evocative stimuli; assessment of trait differences in emotion components) (e.g., [9]); (c) emotional expression [10]; (d) effects of emotion on cognitive processes, such as working memory [11, 12]; (e) evaluation of the affective properties of stimuli varying in valence and arousal. In terms of the conceptual framework, the latter studies represent a dimensional approach to emotion. Dimensional theories of emotion propose that emotions can be characterized along a small number of underlying and separable dimensions, such as valence (the overall
Traumatismos vasculares revis?o de 5 anos
Antunes,Luís F.; Baptista,Ana; Moreira,Joana; Pereira,Ricardo; Gonalves,Anabela; Anacleto,Gabriel; Alegrio,Jo?o; Fonseca,Manuel; Gonalves,óscar; Matos,Albuquerque;
Angiologia e Cirurgia Vascular , 2011,
Abstract: this review intended to evaluate the series of acute vascular trauma in the vascular surgery service of the coimbra university hospital in the period between july 2004 and june 2009. a total of 97 patients were evaluated with iatrogenic lesions being the main cause of trauma injuries, followed by traffic accidents. in group of patients not related with percutaneous coronary angioplasty, it was found that brachial and radial arteries were the most affected in upper limb, while in the lower limb were the superficial femoral and popliteal arteries. the main clinical manifestation was acute ischemic limb. in this group, resection with end-to-end anastomosis and grafts were the main treatment in the upper limb, while trombectomy and bypass were the most common applied technique in the lower limb. there were no deaths, but morbidity was high. neurologic lesions were more frequent in upper limb and amputation in lower limb. these outcomes were similar to other results reported in the literature which demonstrates a gradual increase in iatrogenic injuries.
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