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第四纪以来中国北方出现过的喜暖动物及其古环境意义
<BR>同号文,<BR>
中国科学 地球科学 中国科学 地球科学 , 2007,
Abstract: ?经过长期演化,中国动物地理格局才形成了现今大致以淮河-秦岭-横断山-喜马拉雅山一线为界线的两大动物区系,该线以北属于古北界,以南属于东洋界.中国北方第四纪的化石点有数百个之多,而其中有60多处含东洋界分子,其动物类别有20多个属种,其中以豪猪、猕猴、古菱齿象、额鼻角犀和水牛等属种最为常见.在第四纪,东洋界动物大量出现于华北地区,有三种解释:其一是动物群随气候波动或季节变化自南而北的迁徙;其二是这些动物原本就起源于北方,只是后来由于环境变化而退缩到了东洋界;其三是这些动物本来不是真正的喜热动物.研究表明,这些出现于北方地区的东洋界动物很少发现于黄土堆积中,并且含有这些化石的地点绝大多数都落在我国现代气候分区的暖温带范围内;在化石组合方面,这些喜暖动物很少与耐寒动物共生.由此看来,这些化石总体上是反映较温暖的气候条件,但并非很炎热.因为这些曾经出现在北方地区的东洋界分子,不是真正的热带动物,而是分布范围较广的东洋界分子,其中一些如今仍然生存于淮河以北;此外,至今在北方地区并未发现过真正的热带动物记录,例如鳞甲类、原猴类(懒猴和眼镜猴)和类人猿(巨猿、猩猩及长臂猿)等.在整个第四纪,尽管晚更新世时间跨度很短,但在此期间喜暖动物在北方地区出现的频次却很高,分布范围也最广,这说明晚更新世的气候最为动荡.
Ordinary Biodiversity, Local Stakeholders and Forest Management as a Driver for Regional Sustainable Development  [PDF]
Hervé Brédif, Laurent Simon
Open Journal of Forestry (OJF) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ojf.2014.43032
Abstract:

The protection of biodiversity which had long been bounded up with emblematic “natural” spaces is now increasingly focusing on ordinary biodiversity and rural agricultural land and forests as well as on urban and peri-urban spaces. Such ordinary biodiversity has its own specific features which make it both a relative and uncertain topic of research. Traditional nature protection instruments do not work on this dimension of the planet’s living tissue and new tools need to be deployed in conjunction with regional and local stakeholders that will provide long-term sustainable solutions for biodiversity and for local and regional development more generally. Research conducted on the Plateau de Millevaches explores the possibilities for shared caring for this biodiversity.

Nazis by Kraut: A Playful Application of Moral Self-Licensing  [PDF]
Claude Messner, Adrian Brügger
Psychology (PSYCH) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/psych.2015.69112
Abstract: Doing something moral gives one a license to do something immoral. This form of moral compen-sation is called “moral self-licensing”. Interestingly, the moral behavior can take place in another domain than the subsequent immoral behavior. For example, buying eco-friendly products gives one a license to steal. This article is based on the idea that a healthy diet has a moral dimension. As a consequence, consuming a healthy product should give one a license for immoral behavior. This research supports this hypothesis on a playful study. This study shows that drinking sauerkraut juice contributes to a stronger support of Nazi-esque right wing ideology than drinking either nothing or a less-healthy beverage (Nestea).
Os fenótipos da doen?a pulmonar obstrutiva crónica e a sua relevancia clínica
Celli,BR;
Revista Portuguesa de Pneumologia , 2007,
Abstract: o fenótipo da doen?a pulmonar obstrutiva crónica (dpoc) pode ser definido como a manifesta??o física exteriorizada pelos doentes com dpoc, ou seja, tudo o que fa?a parte da estrutura, fun??o ou comportamento, que possa ser observado. a caracteriza??o do doente com dpoc tem vindo a ser modificada, deixando de se limitar ao grau da obstru??o br?nquica para passar a incluir as manifesta??es de diferentes fenótipos da doen?a. estes incluem, entre outros, a hipoxemia persistente, a hiperinsufla??o com enfisema de distribui??o heterogénea, os doentes com múltiplas exacerba??es e os doentes com disfun??o dos músculos periféricos. cada um destes fenótipos obriga a diferentes abordagens terapêuticas e implica diferentes prognósticos. a limita??o dos débitos aéreos: o elemento definidor o grau de obstru??o definido pelo volume expiratório máximo no primeiro segundo (fev1) apresentado por fletcher e peto tem permitido o estadiamento da gravidade da dpoc, orientando as interven??es terapêuticas de acordo com cada estádio. o estadiamento espirométrico da dpoc pode prever o estado de saúde, o uso dos recursos de saúde, a ocorrência de exacerba??es e a mortalidade. contudo, embora se trate de uma ferramenta diagnóstica e prognóstica útil, o fev1 é um parametro que tem sido usado de forma limitativa, já que os doentes com dpoc que apresentam reversibilidade com o broncodilatador s?o habitualmente excluídos dos estudos clínicos. a presen?a de hiperreactividade br?nquica confere aos doentes com dpoc uma express?o fenotípica associada a uma fun??o pulmonar mais grave. o fev1 e a sua varia??o n?o representam todo o espectro das manifesta??es clínicas complexas da dpoc. a presen?a de enfisema e hiperinsufla??o, a importancia crescente da malnutri??o, a disfun??o dos músculos periféricos e a dispneia reflectem diferentes factores predictivos da evolu??o da doen?a. também as co-morbilidades e o sexo s?o características fenotípicas da doen?a que n?o se correlacionam com o fev1. enfisema e
Parasites gastro - intestinaux de Microcebus murinus de la forêt littorale de Mandena, Madagascar
BR Raharivololona
Madagascar Conservation & Development , 2009,
Abstract: Ce travail avait pour but de décrire les parasites gastro - intestinaux du lémurien Microcebus murinus de la forêt littorale fragmentée de Mandena et d’évaluer l’analyse des parasites basée sur des échantillons de fèces. Des matières fécales au nombre de 427 provenant de 169 individus de M. murinus vivant dans cinq fragments de forêt ont été analysées. Trois individus de M. murinus ont été sacrifiés et autopsiés en vue d’une identification des vers parasite qui ont pondu chaque type d’oeuf trouvé dans les excréments et afin de voir leurs localisations dans le tube digestif de l’animal. Microcebus murinus héberge neuf espèces de parasites gastro - intestinaux dont six nématodes avec une espèce non-identifiée d’Ascarididae, une espèce de Subuluridae du genre Subulura, une espèce de l’ordre des Strongylida et du genre Trichuris (Trichuridae), deux espèces d’Oxyuridae dont l’une est du genre Lemuricola et l’autre reste encore non-identifiée, deux cestodes appartenant au genre Hymenolepis (Hymenolepididae) et un protozoaire de l’ordre des Coccidia. Comparés à toutes les études déjà faites auparavant sur les parasites gastro-intestinaux de M. murinus, les parasites hébergés par les microcèbes de Mandena appartiennent à d’autres espèces que celles qui étaient déjà connues pour infester cette espèce de lémurien. De cette étude, je suggère que le nombre d’oeufs et de larves de Subulura sp. trouvés dans les matières fécales pourrait refléter l’intensité de l’infestation des microcèbes par cette espèce de parasite. So far parasitological studies were concentrated on large primates such as apes and monkeys. This is probably due to epidemiological interest because apes, which are genetically closer to humans, are known to be a reservoir of certain pests and diseases fatal to humans and vice versa. Prosimian gastrointestinal parasites are less studied. The goal of this project was to assess and describe the gastro - intestinal parasites of the lemur species Microcebus murinus from the littoral forest fragments of Mandena, southeastern Madagascar. In addition I wanted to evaluate the utility of determining gastro - intestinal parasite loads based on fecal samples. From April 2003 to October 2005, a total of 427 fecal samples from 169 different individuals of M. murinus from five forest fragments were analyzed to assess the parasite species richness of this lemur species based on parasite larvae and egg morphology. Three individuals of M. murinus were also sacrified in order to look for adult worms for identification and confirmation of parasite species, and to localize their gastro-intestinal parasites in the digestive tract. Screening all fecal samples by using the modified technique of the McMaster flotation, I noted that Microcebus murinus harbored nine different forms of intestinal parasites, and six of them were nematodes: a member of the Ascarididae family, one species of the Subuluridae family represented by the genus Subulura, an unidentified Strongylid
Some factors governing the water quality of microtidal estuaries in South Africa
BR Allanson
Water SA , 2001,
Abstract: The role of coastal geomorphology and Man-made alterations, including reduced river flow through dam construction, determines, at least in part, the water quality of South African microtidal estuaries. To offer increased understanding of the manner in which these features may modify water quality, a short description of the biogeochemical processes in estuaries is provided. Comment on the present limitations of modelling some of the estuarine processes in South African investigations is given. WaterSA Vol.27(3) 2001: 373-386
ON THE APPROXIMATE PARTITION FUNCTION IN THE STATISTICAL THEORY OF ADSORPTION

CFYing,<br>
物理学报 , 1945,
Abstract: Wang's theory for determining the approximate configurational partition function of the adsorbed layer is modified in two different ways. One is to assume that the configurational energy should be corrected: the other to advocate that the deficiency due to a wrong expression for the a priori probability of the. central site is more significant.The configurational partition function is evaluated is both methods and the adsorptipn isotherin and the beat of adsorption computed for the case of quadratic lattice With dipole interaction. values for the last two quantities when a uniform continuous distribution of the distant adsorbed particles is assumed are further given for comparison. The second method, which surpasses the first, is compared with Kirkwood's method. in the case of hexagonal lattice with neighbour interaction. Numerical work is also carried out in this case.
Research on the Drawing-up of the Pole Figure for Orientation Analysis of Directional Si Steel Sheet
SHO,<br>
材料科学技术学报 , 2000,
Abstract: The magnetic property of soft magnetic metals and alloys depends strongly on the crystallographic orientation. In automated equipment for orientation research. the intensity for drawing up the pole figure is measured in detail. The present research shows that the accurate pole figure can be drawn up without measuring concretely the intensity. For directional Si steel sheet the measuring step may be 4 similar to 5 degrees. In this paper the experimental equation for defocusing correction was derived from the experimental data in different specimens with random orientation.
Friction of Alloys at High Temperature
MBPeterson,<br>
材料科学技术学报 , 1994,
Abstract: A brief review is given about the friction and wear properties of high temperature alloys. Above a critical temperature, if the oxide becomes ductile, it will flow over the surface and prevent metal-to-metat contact. In order to study the tribology of oxide lubrication. a series of tests were carried out using Cu(ReO4)2 as a lubricant. The effects of time. Surface finish. substrates. load and temperature were investigated. A mechanism of lubrication is proposed in which the surface slip predominates along with mechanical attachment of oxide to the surface.
Martensitic Transformation in Fe-Mn-Si Based Shape Memory Alloys
TYHsu,<br>
材料科学技术学报 , 1999,
Abstract: 1.IntroductionFe-Mn-Sibasedalloysbecomeonekindofim-portantshapememorymaterialssincethecompleteshapememoryeffect(SME)waJsfoundinFe-3OMn-1Sialloyresultedfromfcc(7)-+hcp(E)martensitictransformationin1982bySatoet.1.i].WorksonfCc(7)-+hcp(E)havebeenextensivelypublishedinlasttenyears.Thepresentauthorhaspointedoutsomenewaspectsoffcc(7)-hcp(E)transformationinalloyswithlowstackingfau1tenergyandhasanalyzedtheSMEassociatedwithfcc(7)-hcp(E)transformationinFe-Mn-Sibasedalloys2~4].Thispaperattempt…
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